Starting

Here’s how to start using Quattro Pro (versions 3, 4, and SE) and 1-2-3 (versions 2.2, 2.3, and 2.4). Other versions are similar.

Copy to the hard disk

You’ll want to copy the program onto a hard disk. Here’s how — but if you’re sharing the computer, ask your colleagues whether they did this step already!

__Quattro Pro__ Turn on the computer without any floppy in drive A.

Versions 3 and SE come on double-density floppy disks. When you buy version 4, you get three high-density 5¼-inch disks and two high-density 3½-inch disks; if your computer doesn’t have a high-density disk drive, you can exchange those disks for double-density disks.

When you see the C prompt, put Disk 1 in drive A and type "a:install".

The computer will say, "QUATTRO PRO Installation". Press ENTER twice.

The computer will say "C:\QPRO". Do this.…

Version 4: press the F2 key.

Versions 3 and SE: press the down-arrow key, then ENTER.

Press the BACKSPACE key three times (so the "C:\QPRO" changes to "C:\Q"). Do this.…

Version 4: press ENTER twice.

Versions 3 and SE: press ENTER, then up-arrow, then ENTER again.

Put Disk 2 in drive A, and press ENTER. Then do the same for any other disks.

The computer will say, "The QUATTRO PRO files have been installed on your hard disk." Press ENTER twice.

The computer will say, "Company Name". Press the F2 key. Type the name of your company or organization. (If you don’t belong to a company or organization, type the word "Personal".) At the end of that typing, press ENTER twice.

The computer will say, "Name". Press the F2 key. Type your own first name and last name. At the end of your name, press ENTER twice.

The computer will say, "Serial #". Press the F2 key. Type the serial number that was printed on the label of Disk 1. At the end of the serial number, press ENTER four times. For versions 3 and SE, press ENTER a fifth time.

The computer will say, "Printer Manufacturer". Press the F2 key. You’ll see a list of printer manufacturers. Press the right-arrow key several times, until *your* printer’s manufacturer is highlighted. Press ENTER twice.

The computer will say, "Printer Model". Press the F2 key. You’ll see a list of printer models. Press the right-arrow key several times, until *your* printer model is highlighted. Press ENTER 7 times for versions 4 and SE, 8 times for version 3. You’ll see a C prompt.

Then turn off the computer, so you can start fresh.

__1-2-3 versions 2.3 and 2.4__ Turn on the computer without any floppy in drive A.

Versions 2.3 and 2.4 of 1-2-3 come on nine 5¼-inch floppy disks. When you see the C prompt, put Disk 1 in drive A and type "a:". The computer will display an A prompt. Type "install".

The computer will say "Lotus Install Program". Press ENTER.

If the computer says "RECORDING YOUR NAME", do this: type your name, press ENTER, type your company’s name, and press ENTER twice.

Press ENTER two more times. The computer will say "C:\123R23" or "C:\123R24". Press the BACKSPACE key three times, so the computer says just "C:\123". Press ENTER twice.

The computer will say, "Insert Disk 2 in drive A". Do it and press ENTER. The computer will say, "Insert Disk 3 in drive A". Do it and press ENTER. Do the same for disks 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9.

The computer will say, "FILE TRANSFER SUCCESSFUL". Press ENTER 6 times.

The computer will say, "Select a text printer driver." You’ll see the beginning of a list of printer manufacturers, alphabetized. Move the box to the name of your printer’s manufacturer, by pressing the down-arrow key repeatedly. Then press ENTER.

You’ll see a list of printer models. Move the box to the name of your printer model. Then press ENTER three times.

The computer will say, "Select a graphics printer driver." Move the box to your printer’s manufacturer again, and press ENTER. Move the box to the name of your printer model; press ENTER six times. You’ll see a DOS prompt.

Then turn off the computer, so you can start fresh.

__1-2-3 version 2.2__ Version 2.2 of 1-2-3 comes on seven 5¼-inch floppy disks. You also get, free, a program called Allways, which comes on five extra 5¼-inch floppy disks. So altogether, you get 12 disks.

*Step 1: initialize 1-2-3.* Turn on the computer without any floppy in drive A. When you see the C prompt, put the 1-2-3 System Disk in drive A, and type "a:". The computer will display an A prompt. Type "init". (If the computer says "Bad command or file name", somebody else initialized 1-2-3 already, so skip ahead to step 2.)

You’ll see a 1-2-3 copyright message. Press ENTER twice. The computer will say, "Please enter your name". Type your name. The computer will say "Confirm (Y/N)". Type Y. The computer will say "Please enter your company’s name". Type your company’s name. The computer will say "Confirm (Y/N)" again. Type Y again. The computer will say "Press ENTER to continue". Press ENTER twice.

*Step 2: enter the 1-2-3 subdirectory.* When you see the A prompt, type "c:". The computer will display a C prompt. Type "md 123" (so you’re making a subdirectory called 123). After the next C prompt, type "cd 123" (so you’re changing to the 123 subdirectory).

*Step 3: copy 1-2-3.* Type "copy a:*.*" (which copies all the floppy’s files onto the hard disk). Put another 1-2-3 floppy into drive A and type "copy a:*.*" again (which copies all of that floppy’s files onto the hard disk). Repeat that procedure for each of the 1-2-3 floppies (but *not* for the Allways floppies), so each 1-2-3 floppy is copied onto the hard disk.

*Step 4: install 1-2-3.* Type "install". Eventually, the computer will say "Press ENTER to begin the Install program." Press ENTER five times.

You’ll see a list of monitors. Which monitor do you have? Move the box to your monitor’s name, by pressing the down-arrow key several times. To do that, you might find this chart helpful:

__Your monitor__ __Choose this monitor from menu__

normal monochrome Hercules Graphics Card (80 x 25)

laptop monochrome Toshiba T1100 Plus and T1200

Compaq monochrome Compaq, single-color monitor

AT&T monochrome AT&T 6300 single-color monitor

CGA color IBM color card, color monitor

EGA color IBM/Compaq Enhanced Graphics (EGA 80 x 25)

VGA color or mono IBM/Compaq Video Graphics (VGA 80 x 25)

MCGA color or mono IBM Multi-Color (MCGA) Color

Press ENTER twice. You’ll see a list of printer manufacturers. Move the box to the name of your printer’s manufacturer. (If your manufacturer’s name isn’t listed, choose "Epson" for dot-matrix; choose "HP" for laser.)

Press ENTER. You’ll see a list of printers. Move the box to your printer’s model number. (If you chose "Epson" because your printer’s manufacturer was unlisted, try choosing "FX" for 9-pin, "LQ 2500" for 24-pin.)

Press ENTER three times. You’ll see a list of printer manufacturers again. Move the box to the name of your printer’s manufacturer again.

Press ENTER. Move the box to your printer’s model number again.

Press ENTER five times. The computer will ask, "Do you want to leave Install?" Move the box to Yes.

Press ENTER. You’ll see a DOS prompt.

Then turn off the computer, so you can start fresh.

Run the program

To run the program, begin by turning on the computer without any floppy in drive A.

If you’ve put the DO.BAT file onto your hard disk (as I recommended in the MS-DOS chapter), your life is easy! Just type "do q" to do Quattro Pro; type "do 123" to do 1-2-3.

If you have *not* put DO.BAT onto your hard disk, your life is harder! You must type "cd q" and then "q" to do Quattro Pro; you must type "cd 123" and then "123" to do 1-2-3.

Move the box

The screen shows a table that begins like this:

A B C D E F G H

1 ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦

2

3

4

Normally, the letters go from A to H; but if you’re using Quattro Pro 4 with an EGA or VGA monitor, the letters go from A to I. Normally, the numbers start at 1 and go up to 20; but if you’re using Quattro Pro 3 or 4 with an EGA or VGA monitor, the numbers go up to 22 or 23.

Notice that the computer puts a box in column A, row 1. If you tap the right-arrow key, that box moves to the right, so it’s in column B. If you tap the down-arrow key, the box moves down, to row 2. By tapping the four arrow keys, you can move the box in all four directions, to practically anywhere on the screen.

__Jargon__ Each possible position of the box is called a cell.

The box’s original position (in column A, row 1) is called cell A1. If you move the box there and then tap the right-arrow key, the box moves to column B, row 1; that position is called cell B1.

To point at a cell, move the box to that cell. Since you use the box to point at cells, the box is called the cell pointer.

Create a spreadsheet

To create a spreadsheet, you move the box from cell to cell, and put into each cell whatever words or numbers you wish.

For example, suppose you run a small business whose income is $7000 and expenses are $5000. Those are the figures for January; the figures for February aren’t in yet. Let’s put the January figures into a spreadsheet, like this:

A B C D E F G H

1 January

2 Income 7000

3 Expenses 5000

4 Profit

To begin, move the box to cell A2. Type the word Income, then press the down-arrow key, which moves the box down to cell A3. Now your screen shows the word Income in cell A2, and the box is in cell A3.

Try that! When you do, here’s what happens. While you type the word Income, it appears temporarily in an input area at the top of the screen. It appears just in the input area until you press the down-arrow key, which copies Income to cell A2 and moves the box down.

After the box has moved to cell A3, continue typing the spreadsheet as follows. Type the word Expenses, press the down-arrow key (to move to cell A4), type the word Profit, move the box to cell B1 (by pressing the up-arrow three times and then the right-arrow once), type the word January, press down-arrow, type 7000, press down-arrow, type 5000, and press down-arrow again.

__BACKSPACE key__ If you make a mistake while typing the words and numbers, press the BACKSPACE key to erase the last character you typed.

The left-arrow key will *not* help you erase the last character you typed. Instead, the left-arrow key moves the box to a different cell.

__Type a formula__ Although the computer’s screen shows the words you typed (Income, Expenses, and Profit), the computer doesn’t understand what those words mean. It doesn’t know that "Profit" means "Income minus Expenses". The computer doesn’t know that the number in cell B4 (which represents the profit) ought to be the number in cell B2 (the amount of income) minus the number in cell B3 (the dollars spent).

You must *teach* the computer the meaning of Profit, by teaching it that the number in cell B4 ought to be the number in cell B2 minus the number in cell B3.

To do that, move the box to cell B4, then type this formula:

+B2-B3

Notice that every formula normally begins with a plus sign. The rest of the formula, B2-B3, tells the computer to subtract the number in cell B3 from the number in cell B2, and put the answer into the box’s cell (which is cell B4).

When you type that formula, you don’t have to bother capitalizing the B: capitalization is optional.

While you’re typing that formula, it appears in the input area.

When you’ve finished typing the formula, press the ENTER key. Then the computer automatically computes the formula’s answer (2000) and puts that number into the box’s cell (B4), so the screen looks like this:

A B C D E F G H

1 January

2 Income 7000

3 Expenses 5000

4 Profit 2000

The formula "+B2-B3" remains in effect forever. It says that the number in cell B4 will always be the B2 number minus the B3 number. If you ever change the numbers in cells B2 and B3 (by moving the box to those cells, retyping the numbers, and pressing ENTER), the computer automatically adjusts the number in cell B4, so the number in cell B4 is still B2 minus B3 and still represents the correct profit.

For example, suppose you move the box to cell B2, then type 8000 (to change the January income to $8000), and then press ENTER. As soon as you press ENTER, not only does the number 8000 appear in cell B2 but also the profit in cell B4 immediately changes to 3000, right in front of your eyes!

A typical spreadsheet contains *dozens* of numbers, totals, subtotals, averages, and percentages. Each cell that contains a total, subtotal, average, or percentage is defined by a formula. Whenever you retype one of the numbers in the spreadsheet, the computer automatically readjusts all the totals, subtotals, averages, and percentages, right before your eyes.

Remember to begin each formula with a plus sign. The rest of the formula can contain these symbols:

__Symbol__ __Meaning__

+ plus

- minus

* times

/ divided by

. decimal point

It can also contain E notation and parentheses. For details about how to use those symbols, E notation, and parentheses, read pages 330-335, which explain BASIC’s fundamentals and math.

Edit simply

To edit what’s in a cell, move the box to that cell. Then type the word, number, or formula that you want to put into the cell.

If the cell’s word, number, or formula was *almost* correct, and you’re too lazy to retype it all, do the following. Move the box to that cell. Press the F2 key. Now the cursor is in the input area. Edit the word, number, or formula as if you were using a word processor. (Use the BACKSPACE, DELETE, INSERT, left-arrow, and right-arrow keys.) When you finish editing, press ENTER.

If you type a formula incorrectly, the computer might beep at you. Then the cursor stays in the input area, so you can edit the error.

Use functions

To make a cell be the sum of cells B2 through B9, you can type this formula:

+B2+B3+B4+B5+B6+B7+B8+B9

Instead of typing all that, you can type just this:

+@SUM(B2..B9)

A function is a word that makes the computer calculate (such as SUM). Put the symbol @ before each function: say @SUM instead of SUM.

After each function, you must put parentheses. For example, you must put parentheses after SUM.

Since the computer ignores capitalization, you can type:

+@sum(b2..b9)

You can omit the plus sign and the second period, and type just this:

@sum(b2.b9)

To find the sum of cells B2 through H2 (which is B2+C2+D2+E2+F2+G2+H2), type this:

@sum(b2.h2)

To find the sum of all cells in the rectangle that stretches from B2 to C4 (which is B2+B3+B4+C2+C3+C4), type this:

@sum(b2.c4)

__Average__ To find the average of cells B9 through B13, you can type this:

+(b9+b10+b11+b12+b13)/5

But this way is shorter:

@avg(b9.b13)

To find the average of cells C7, B5, and F2, you can ask for (c7+b5+f2)/3, but a nicer way is to type:

@avg(c7,b5,f2)

Point in a formula

While you’re typing a formula, you can point at cells instead of typing their names. For example, in the middle of a formula, instead of typing B2, you can just point at cell B2, by moving the box to cell B2. When you move the box to cell B2, the computer automatically types B2 for you.

So to type the formula +B2-B3, just type the equal sign (or plus sign), move the box to cell B2, then type the minus sign, then move the box to cell B3. Try it! When you’ve finished constructing the formula, press ENTER.

To type the formula @sum(b2.b9) quickly, type the "@sum(", then move the box to B2, then type the period, then move the box to B9, then type the ")".

Fill a cell

Suppose you want to fill an entire cell with dashes, so that the cell looks like this:

---------

Here’s how to do that quickly.

Type a backslash (which is the symbol "\"), then type the dash, then press ENTER. The backslash means "fill", so the computer will fill the entire cell with dashes.

__Be joyous__ Instead of typing a dash, try typing the word JOY. Then the computer will fill the cell with JOY, like this:

JOYJOYJOY

Hop far

Here’s how to be quick as a bunny and hop far in your spreadsheet.

__Farther rows__ The screen shows just a few rows, which are numbered 1, 2, 3, etc. Row 1 is at the top of the screen. Row 15 is near the bottom of the screen.

Try this experiment. Move the box down to row 15 (by pressing the down-arrow key repeatedly). Then press the down-arrow key several more times. Eventually, you’ll get to row 30, and later to row 100, and much later to row 1000. The largest row number you can go to is 8192.

To make room on the screen for those new rows, row 1 disappears temporarily. If you want to get back to row 1, press the up-arrow key repeatedly.

__Farther columns__ The screen shows just a few columns, which are lettered A, B, C, etc. If you press the right-arrow key repeatedly, you’ll eventually get to column Z.

Altogether, the computer lets you have 256 columns. The first 26 columns are lettered from A to Z. The next 26 columns are lettered from AA to AZ. The next 26 columns are lettered from BA to BZ. And so on. The last column — the 256th — is IV. That’s why people who use spreadsheets are called "IV league accountants".

Do *not* try to put data in all the rows and columns! Your computer doesn’t have enough RAM to hold that much data. Cynics say, "Before you run out of spreadsheet, you’ll run out of RAM."

__Autorepeat__ Here’s a shortcut: instead of pressing an arrow key repeatedly, just hold down the key awhile.

__Screenfuls__ To move far down, press the PAGE DOWN key. To move far up, press the PAGE UP key. To move far to the right, press the TAB key. To move far to the left, press the TAB key *while holding down the SHIFT key*. Each of those keys moves the box far enough so that you see the next screenful of rows and columns.

__HOME key__ Cell A1 is called the home cell, because that’s where life and your spreadsheet begins: at home! To move the box there, press the HOME key.

__END key__ If you press the END key and then an arrow key, the box moves to the spreadsheet’s edge.

For example, if you press the END key and then the *right*-arrow key, the box moves to the spreadsheet’s *right* edge. That means the box moves to the right, until it reaches column IV or a boundary cell (a cell containing data and next to an empty cell).

__F5 key__ To move the box to a distant cell immediately, press the F5 key. Then type the cell’s name (such as C9) followed by ENTER.

Major editing

To give a command, press the slash key (which as the symbol "/" on it). Next, choose from the main menu, which appears at the top of the screen. In Quattro Pro, the main menu looks like this:

File Edit Style Graph Print Database Tools Options Window

In 1-2-3, the main menu looks like this:

Worksheet Range Copy Move File Print Graph Data System Add-in Quit

After you’ve pressed the slash key, choose a command from the main menu by typing the command’s first letter.

If you’re not sure which command to choose, press the right-arrow key several times; that makes the computer explain each command’s purpose.

After choosing a command, the computer might ask you for further details, by giving you a submenu to choose from. To choose a command from a submenu, type the command’s first letter.

If you make a mistake, press the Esc key several times. That cancels the menus, so they disappear. (Then if you wish, you can try again to use the menus: press the slash key again and choosing menu commands again, by typing the first letter of each command you wish.)

Here are examples.…

Erase all

Here’s how to erase the entire spreadsheet so that all the cells become blank and you can start over again.

__Quattro Pro__ Say File Erase Yes by pressing the slash key, then the F key, then the E key, then the Y key, like this: /FEY.

__1-2-3__ Say Worksheet Erase Yes by pressing the slash key, then the W key, then the E key, then the Y key, like this: /WEY. If you’re using version 2.3 or 2.4, the computer might ask, "Erase worksheet?"; to reply, press Y.

__Try it!__ Go ahead! Try erasing the entire spreadsheet! Do it *now*. It’s a good way to practice using menus.

Erase one cell

Suppose you want to erase just one cell so it becomes blank. Move the box to that cell, then do the following.

__Quattro Pro__ Press the DELETE key.

__1-2-3__ For version 2.3 and 2.4, press the DELETE key. For version 2.2, say Range Erase (by typing /RE), then press ENTER.

Erase several cells

Here’s how to erase *several* cells, so they become blank.

Move the box to the first cell you want to erase. If you’re using Quattro Pro, say Edit Erase-block (by typing /EE); if you’re using 1-2-3, say Range Erase (by typing /RE). Move the box to the last cell you want to erase. Press ENTER.

The computer will erase that first cell, last cell, and the cells between them.

For example, if the first cell is B2, and the last cell is B7, the computer will erase B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, and B7. If the first cell is B2, and the last cell is E2, the computer will erase B2, C2, D2, and E2. If the first cell is B2, and the last cell is C4, the computer will erase B2, B3, B4, C2, C3, and C4.

The first cell, last cell, and the cells between them form a rectangle. Quattro Pro calls that rectangle a block; 1-2-3 calls it a range.

So here’s how to erase a rectangle of cells: point at one corner of the rectangle (by using the arrow keys), then say Edit Erase-block (or Range Erase), then point at the rectangle’s opposite corner and press ENTER.

Delete some columns

Here’s how to delete column B.

Move the box to column B. For Quattro Pro, say Edit Delete Columns (by typing /EDC); for 1-2-3; say Worksheet Delete Column (by typing /WDC). Press ENTER.

The computer erases all the data from column B, so column B becomes blanks, which the computer immediately fills by shifting some data from other columns. Here’s how.…

Into column B, the computer moves the data from column C. Then into column C, the computer moves the data from column D. Then into column D, the computer moves the data from column E. And so on.

At the end of the process, the top of the screen still shows all the letters (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, etc.); but now column B contains the data that used to be in column C; and column C contains the data that used to be in column D; etc.

After rearranging the spreadsheet, the computer fixes all formulas. For example, after column C’s data has moved to column B, the computer hunts through all formulas in the spreadsheet and fixes them by changing each "C" to "B". The computer also changes each "D" to "C", each "E" to "D", etc.

You’ve learned how to delete column B. Here’s how to delete *several* columns. Move the box to the first column you want to delete, then say Edit Delete Columns (for Quattro Pro) or Worksheet Delete Column (for 1-2-3), then move the box to the last column you want to delete, then press ENTER. The computer will delete that first column, last column, and the columns between them.

Delete some rows

Instead of deleting columns, you can delete rows.

Move the box to the first row you want to delete. For Quattro Pro, say Edit Delete Rows; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Delete Row. Move the box to the last row you want to delete. Press ENTER.

Insert some columns

You can insert extra columns in the middle of your spreadsheet. When you do, the computer will move other columns out of the way, to make room for the extra columns. The computer will also adjust each formula.

Here’s how to insert extra columns.

Point where you want the first extra column to appear (by moving the box there). For Quattro Pro, say Edit Insert Columns; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Insert Column. Point where you want the last extra column. Press ENTER.

Insert some rows

Here’s how to insert extra rows.

Point where you want the first extra row. For Quattro Pro, say Edit Insert Rows; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Insert Row. Point where you want the last extra row. Press ENTER.

Move

You can move your data.

__Move a rectangle__ On your spreadsheet, find these cells: B2, B3, B4, C2, C3, and C4. Those six cells are next to each other. In fact, they form a giant rectangular area, whose top left corner is B2.

You can tell the computer to take all the data in that rectangular area and move it to a different part of your spreadsheet. For example, you can tell the computer to move the data to the part of your spreadsheet that begins at E7.

Then the computer will move B2’s data to E7, B3’s data to E8, B4’s data to E9, C2’s data to F7, C3’s data to F8, and C4’s data to F9. In other words, all the data in the original rectangle (whose top left corner is B2) will get moved to a rectangle whose top left corner is E7.

The computer will also adjust all formulas that refer to the cells in the rectangle.

Here’s how to make the computer do all that.

Point at the original rectangle’s top left corner (B2).

For 1-2-3, say Move. For Quattro Pro, say Edit Move (or use this shortcut: while holding down the CONTROL key, tap the M key).

Point at the original rectangle’s bottom right corner (C4). Press ENTER.

Point at the new rectangle’s top left corner (E7). Press ENTER.

__Make sure it’s blank__ Before you move a rectangle, make sure the place you’re moving it to is blank. (The computer will *not* move cells out of the way, to make room for the rectangle.)

If you can’t find a blank space to put the rectangle, you must *create* a blank space (by erasing cells or by inserting new blank columns or rows).

__Close the gap__ When the computer finishes moving the rectangle, the rectangle’s original position becomes a group of empty cells. If you want those empty cells to vanish, point there and tell the computer to delete the rows and columns those cells are in.

__Different kinds of rectangles__ Try moving different kinds of rectangles.

For example, try moving a rectangle that consists of one column of numbers. For that rectangle, the "top left corner" is the column’s top number; the "bottom right corner" is the column’s bottom number.

Try moving a rectangle that consists of one row of words. For that rectangle, the "top left corner" is the row’s first word; the "bottom right corner" is the row’s last word.

Try moving a rectangle that consists of just one cell. That rectangle’s "top left corner" and "bottom right corner"are just the cell itself.

Copy

You can copy your data.

__Copy a cell__ Here’s how to copy a cell’s data to a different place, so the cell’s data will appear in *both* places.

Point at the cell.

For 1-2-3, say Copy. For Quattro Pro, say Edit Copy (or use this shortcut: while holding down the CONTROL key, tap the C key).

Press ENTER. Point where you want the copy to appear. Press ENTER again.

__Make sure it’s blank__ Before you copy a cell’s data, make sure the place you’re copying it to is blank. The computer will *not* move cells out of the way to make room for the copy.)

__Copy a formula’s concept__ If you ask the computer to copy a formula, the computer will copy the *concept* underlying the formula.

For example, suppose cell B4 contains the formula +B2+B3, so that B4 is the sum of the two cells above it. If you tell the computer to copy cell B4 to E9, the computer will make E9’s formula be "the sum of the two cells above it"; the computer will make E9’s formula be +E7+E8.

For another example, suppose cell B4 contains the formula +2*B3, so that B4 is twice the cell above it. If you tell the computer to copy cell B4 to E9, the computer will make E9’s formula be "twice the cell above it"; the computer will make E9’s formula be +2*E8.

For another example, suppose cell B4 contains the formula +2*A4, so that B4 is twice the cell to the left of it. If you tell the computer to copy cell B4 to E9, the computer will make E9’s formula be "twice the cell to the left of it"; the computer will make E9’s formula be +2*D9.

__Multiple copies of a cell__ Here’s how to copy a cell’s data to *several* places.

Point at the cell.

For 1-2-3, say Copy. For Quattro Pro, say Edit Copy (or use this shortcut: while holding down the CONTROL key, tap the C key).

Press ENTER.

Point where you want the first copy to appear. Press the period key. Point where you want the last copy to appear. Press ENTER.

__Copy a rectangle__ Here’s how to copy a rectangle of data to a different place, so the rectangle’s data will appear in both places.

Point at the rectangle’s top left corner.

For 1-2-3, say Copy. For Quattro Pro, say Edit Copy (or use this shortcut: while holding down the CONTROL key, tap the C key).

Point at the rectangle’s bottom right corner. Press ENTER.

Point where you want the copy of the rectangle to begin appearing. (That’s where the new rectangle’s top left corner will be.) Press ENTER.

__Dollar signs__ Notice again how copying from B4 to E9 turns the formula +B2+B3 into +E7+E8: it turns each B into an E, the 2 into a 7, and the 3 into an 8.

If you want to prevent those changes, put dollar signs in the original formula. For example, to prevent the 3 from turning into an 8, put a dollar sign before the 3, so cell B4 contains this formula:

+B2+B$3

When you copy that cell to E9, the dollar sign prevents the computer from turning the 3 into an 8; E9’s formula will become +E7+E$3 (instead of +E7+E8).

To prevent the 2 from turning into a 7, put a dollar sign before the 2, like this:

+B$2+B3

To prevent each B from turning into an E, put a dollar sign before each B, like this:

+$B2+$B3

To prevent any changes from occurring at all, put a dollar sign before each column letter and each row number, like this:

+$B$2+$B$3

When you copy that formula from cell B4 to E9, the computer will put that same formula into cell E9, without making any changes. Cell E9 will contain +$B$2+$B$3.

You can use this short cut: instead of typing $B$2, you can point at cell B2 and then press the F4 key. Pressing the F4 key makes the computer insert the dollar signs. So to type $B$2 quickly, point at cell B2 then press the F4 key.

__Kinds of addresses__ A cell’s name (such as B3) is called the cell’s address, because the cell’s name tells you where to find the cell.

An address that contains dollar signs (such as $B$3) is called an absolute address, because the address is absolutely fixed and will never change, not even when you copy the formula.

An address that lacks dollar signs is called a relative address, because when you copy that address you’ll be copying the cell’s relationship to the other cells.

An address containing just one dollar sign (such as B$3) is called a mixed address, because it’s partly relative and partly absolute.

Column width

When you start Quattro Pro & 1-2-3, each cell is wide enough to hold 9 characters.

Widen a column

Here’s how to make column D be wider, so that each cell in column D can hold longer words and numbers.

Point at column D (by moving the box there).

For 1-2-3, say Worksheet Column Set-width (by typing /WCS). For Quattro Pro, say Style Column-width (by typing /SC) or use this shortcut: press CONTROL with W.

Tap the right-arrow key several times, until the column is as wide as you like. (If you want to make the column *narrower*, tap the *left*-arrow key.)

Press ENTER.

Widen several columns

Let’s widen *several* columns.

Here’s how to change the computer’s assumption that most cells should be 9 characters wide. For Quattro Pro, say Options Formats Global-width (by typing /OFG); for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Global Column-width (by typing /WGC). Repeatedly tap the right-arrow key until the columns are as wide as you like, then press ENTER.

That changes the computer’s assumption that most cells should be 9 characters wide, but it does *not* change any column whose width you specified previously (by saying Column Width or Worksheet Column Set-width).

You can widen columns B, C, D, and E by using the following trick. Move the box to column B. For Quattro Pro SE, say Style Block-widths Set-width (by typing /SBS); for Quattro Pro 3 and 4, say Style Block-size Set-width (by typing /SBS); for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Column Column-range Set-width (by typing /WCCS). Move the box to column E, and press ENTER. Repeatedly tap the right-arrow key until the columns are as wide as you like, then press ENTER.

Long numbers

If you try to type a long number in a cell that’s too narrow to hold the number, the cell might display symbols instead of the number.

For example, try typing a long number in a cell that’s just 4 characters wide. Instead of displaying the long number, the computer displays 4 asterisks (****).

Although the cell displays just those symbols, the computer remembers the long number you typed. To see the long number, widen the cell (by widening its column).

So if you see asterisks or number signs in a cell, the computer is telling you that the cell is too narrow and should be widened.

Long words

Try this experiment. Make cell B1 be just 4 characters wide. Then try to type the word "January" in that cell.

That cell will probably show just the first 4 letters (Janu). You probably won’t see the remaining letters (ary). But if the next cell (C1) is blank, the computer will temporarily widen cell B1 to hold "January".

Cell B1 will contract to its original size (4 characters) when you enter data in cell C1.

Final steps

After you’ve finished creating your spreadsheet, you’ll want to do six things:

Slide headings toward the right, so they’re over the numbers.

Beautify columns of numbers, by aligning their decimal points.

Rearrange the data to put it in numerical or alphabetical order.

Copy the data onto paper.

Copy the data onto a disk.

Move to a different spreadsheet or task.

Here’s how.…

Right justify

In a simple spreadsheet, row 1 usually contains words (such as January, February, and March). Those words act as headings for columns of numbers.

Unfortunately, those words are too far to the left, so they aren’t exactly above the numbers. (That happens because when the computer puts short data into a wide cell, the computer puts the data near the cell’s *left* edge if the data is a word, but puts the data near the cell’s *right* edge if the data is a number.)

To make the words in row 1 align better with the numbers below them, tell the computer to shift the words in row 1 to the right slightly. Here’s how.

To shift just one word to the right, put a quotation mark before the word. For example, if you want just the word March to be shifted to the right, type this in the cell:

"March

Here’s how to shift *all* the words in row 1 to the right. Point at the beginning of row 1 (by pressing the HOME key). For Quattro Pro, say Style Alignment Right; for 1-2-3, say Range Label Right. Point at the rightmost filled cell in row 1. Press ENTER.

Format the numbers

Normally, the screen displays numbers like this:

A B C D E F

1 1538.4

2 -0.739

Here’s how to display those numbers more beautifully.

If the numbers in your spreadsheet represent money, try this experiment. For Quattro Pro, say Options Formats Numeric-format Fixed, then press ENTER, then press Q, then press Q again; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Global Format Fixed, then press ENTER.

That makes the spreadsheet show 2 digits after each decimal point and round each amount to the nearest penny, so that the numbers look like this:

A B C D E F

1 1538.40

2 -0.74

If you type a comma instead of saying Fixed, the computer will also put commas in large numbers and put parentheses around negative amounts, so that the spreadsheet looks like this:

A B C D E F

1 1,538.40

2 (0.74)

If you say Currency instead of Fixed, the computer will also put dollar signs in front of the numbers, like this:

A B C D E F

1 $1,538.40

2 ($0.74)

But before giving that command, you must widen column A, to allow enough room to insert the dollar signs.

If you say Percent instead of Fixed, the computer will express each number as a percentage, by putting a percent sign after the number and multiplying the number by 100, like this:

A B C D E F

1 153840.00%

2 -73.90%

If you change your mind, and want to return to the traditional format (instead of Fixed or comma or Currency or Percent), say General instead of Fixed.

Those commands change the formats of all the numbers in the spreadsheet.

Here’s how to change the formats of just a *few* numbers. Point at the first number whose format you want to change. For Quattro Pro, say Style Numeric-format; for 1-2-3, say Range Format. Choose a format: say Fixed or Currency or Percent or General or a comma. Press the ENTER key (unless you chose General). Point at the last number whose format you want to change. Press the ENTER key.

Suppose you format a few special numbers (by saying Block Display-format or Range Format), and later give a different format to the worksheet as a whole (by saying Defaults Format Display or Worksheet Global Format). The format given to the worksheet as a whole will affect *most* of the worksheet but will *not* affect the special numbers you formatted already.

Sort the data

This spreadsheet shows how Sue, Al, and Pedro scored on a test:

A B C D E F

1 Sue 42

2 Al 7

3 Pedro 100

You can make the computer alphabetize the names, so the spreadsheet becomes:

A B C D E F

1 Al 7

2 Pedro 100

3 Sue 42

You can make the computer put the scores in numerical order, so the spreadsheet becomes:

A B C D E F

1 Al 7

2 Sue 42

3 Pedro 100

You can make the computer put the scores in *reverse* numerical order (from highest score to lowest score), so the spreadsheet becomes:

A B C D E F

1 Pedro 100

2 Sue 42

3 Al 7

__Jargon__ Putting data in order (alphabetically or numerically) is called sorting.

Normal order (from lowest number to highest number, or from A to Z) is called ascending order. Reverse order (from highest number to lowest number, or from Z to A) is called descending order.

The entire rectangular area that’s involved in the sorting (which includes cells A1, A2, A3, B1, B2, and B3) is called the data area.

__Procedure__ For Quattro Pro, say Database Sort; for 1-2-3, say Data Sort. You’ll see the sort menu, which offers you several choices.

For Quattro Pro, choose Block (by typing B); for 1-2-3, choose Data-range (by typing D). Point at the data area’s first cell (A1), type a period, point at the data area’s last cell (B3), and press ENTER.

You’ll see the sort menu again. For Quattro Pro, choose 1st-key (by typing the number 1); for 1-2-3, choose Primary-key (by typing P). To alphabetize by student name, move the box to column A; to alphabetize by score instead, move the box to column B. Press ENTER. Type an A (for ascending order) or D (for descending order). Press ENTER.

You’ll see the sort menu again. Choose Go (by typing G). The computer will go sort.

If you want the computer to sort differently (for example, by score instead of student name, or descending instead of ascending), say Database Sort or Data Sort again. Since the computer still remembers the previous data area, you do *not* have to say Block or Data-range again; just say 1st-key or Primary-key again, point at the field name you want to sort on, press ENTER, type an A or D, etc.

Print on paper

To print on paper, turn the printer off, put paper into the printer, and adjust the paper if necessary so that the printer is ready to print at the top of a new sheet. Then turn the printer back on.

__Quattro Pro__ Say Print. You’ll see the print menu, which offers you several choices.

Choose Block (by typing B). Point at the first cell you want to print (which is usually A1), type a period, point at the last cell you want to print (such as H20), and press ENTER.

You’ll see the print menu again. Choose Spreadsheet-print (by typing S). The printer will print. (If the spreadsheet is too wide to fit on the paper, the printer will print the left part of the spreadsheet on one sheet of paper and the right part of the spreadsheet on the next sheet.) When the printer has finished, you’ll see the print menu again.

(If you’re using a laser printer, the paper won’t come out of the printer yet. I’ll explain later how to make the paper come out.)

If you want to print another copy of the same cells, choose Spreadsheet-print again. If you want to print different cells instead, choose Block, then say which cells to print, then choose Spreadsheet-print.

If you want to print at the top of a new sheet of paper (instead of the bottom of the previous sheet), tell the printer to jerk up the paper by giving a special "jerk paper" command before you say Spreadsheet-print. To give the "jerk paper" command, say Adjust-printer Form-feed (by typing A then F).

To make the paper come out of a laser printer, give that "jerk paper" command.

When you finish using the printer, choose Quit from the print menu (by typing Q). That makes the print menu disappear, so that you can do anything else you wish.

__1-2-3__ Say Print Printer. You’ll see the print menu, which offers you several choices.

Choose Range (by typing R). Point at the first cell you want to print (which is usually A1), type a period, point at the last cell you want to print (such as H20), and press ENTER.

You’ll see the print menu again. Choose Go (by typing G). The printer will go print. (If the spreadsheet is too wide to fit on the paper, the printer will print the left part of the spreadsheet on one sheet of paper and the right part of the spreadsheet on the next sheet.) When the printer has finished, you’ll see the print menu again.

(If you’re using a laser printer, the paper won’t come out of the printer yet. I’ll explain later how to make the paper come out.)

If you want to print another copy of the same cells, choose Go again. If you want to print different cells instead, choose Range, then say which cells to print, then choose Go.

If you want to print at the top of a new sheet of paper (instead of the bottom of the previous sheet), tell the printer to jerk up the paper by giving a special "jerk paper" command before you say Go. To give the "jerk paper" command, say Page (by typing P).

To make the paper come out of a laser printer, give that "jerk paper" command.

When you finish using the printer, choose Quit from the print menu (by typing Q). That makes the print menu disappear, so that you can do anything else you wish.

Save on disk

Here’s how to copy your spreadsheet onto the hard disk.

Say File Save (or use this Quattro Pro shortcut: while holding down the CONTROL key, tap the S key). Then invent a name for the spreadsheet; for example, if you want the spreadsheet to be named FRED, type FRED and press ENTER.

The computer will try to copy the spreadsheet onto the hard disk and call the spreadsheet "FRED".

If the hard disk contains a file named FRED *already*, the computer will interrupt the process and display a menu that says "Cancel" and "Replace".

If you choose Replace (by typing R), the computer will copy your spreadsheet onto the hard disk and erase the previous file named FRED. If you choose Cancel instead, the computer will cancel your request to copy the spreadsheet onto the disk, so the original disk file named FRED will remain intact.

Retrieve from disk

Here’s how to see a list of all the spreadsheets on your hard disk.

Say File Retrieve. If the computer asks a question (such as "Lose your changes?" in Quattro Pro or "Retrieve file?" in 1-2-3), press Y.

(Next, if you’re using 1-2-3, press the F3 key.)

You’ll see a list of all the spreadsheets on your hard disk.

If you don’t want to use any of those spreadsheets at the moment, tap the BREAK key while holding down the CONTROL key. (The BREAK key is at the upper-right corner of your keyboard. That key also says Pause or Scroll Lock.)

If you *do* want to use one of those spreadsheets, point at the one you want to use and press ENTER. The computer will copy that spreadsheet from the disk to the RAM and show that spreadsheet on your screen.

Delete from disk

Here’s how to erase a spreadsheet from your hard disk.

__Quattro Pro__ Say File Utilities File-manager (by typing /FUF). The computer will display a directory of all the spreadsheets on your hard disk.

Point at the spreadsheet you want to delete, press the DELETE key, and press Y (to confirm that Yes, you really want to delete it. Then say File Close (by typing /FC).

__1-2-3__ Say File Erase Worksheet. Press the F3 key.

The computer will display a directory of all the spreadsheets on your hard disk.

If you change your mind and don’t want to erase any of them, tap the BREAK key while holding down the CONTROL key. If you *do* want to erase one of them, point at it, press ENTER, and press Y (to confirm that Yes, you really want to erase it).

Quit

When you finish using the spreadsheet program, here’s how to quit.

__Quattro Pro__ Say File eXit (or use this shortcut: while holding down the CONTROL key, tap the X key). If the computer asks "Lose your changes and exit?", press Y. The screen will show a C prompt, so you can give a DOS command.

__1-2-3__ Say Quit Yes (by typing a slash, then Q, then Y). If the computer asks "End 1-2-3?", press Y. The screen will show a C prompt, so you can give a DOS command.

Advanced views

Congratulations! Now you know all the fundamental spreadsheet commands!

Here are advanced commands that provide better ways to view your spreadsheet.

Vertical windows

You can divide the screen into two windows so that each window shows a different part of your spreadsheet.

Here’s how to divide your screen into two windows, so that the left window shows columns A, B, and C, while the right window shows columns X, Y, and Z. (The two windows will be separated from each other by a vertical line.)

Get column A onto the screen (by pressing the HOME key). Move the box to the middle of the screen (column E). For Quattro Pro, say Window Options Vertical; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Window Vertical.

The screen splits into two windows. The left window shows columns A through D; the right window shows columns E through H.

The box begins in the left window, but you can move it to the right window by pressing the F6 key.

Here’s how to put columns X, Y, and Z into the right window: move the box to the right window (by pressing the F6 key), then tap the right-arrow or TAB key several times (until you reach columns X, Y, and Z).

If you want to move the box back to the left window, press the F6 key again.

Here’s how to stop using vertical windows. For Quattro Pro, say Window Options Clear; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Window Clear.

Horizontal windows

Here’s how to divide the screen into two windows, so that the top window shows rows 1, 2, and 3, while the bottom window shows rows 97, 98, and 99. (The two windows will be separated from each other by a horizontal line.)

Get row 1 onto the screen (by pressing the HOME key). Move the box to the middle of the screen (row 10). For Quattro Pro, say Window Options Horizontal; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Window Horizontal.

The screen splits into two windows. The top window shows rows 1 through 9; the bottom window shows rows 10 through 19.

The box begins in the top window, but you can move it to the bottom window by pressing the F6 key.

Here’s how to put rows 97, 98, and 99 into the bottom window: move the box to the bottom window (by pressing the F6 key), then tap the down-arrow or PAGE DOWN key several times (until you reach rows 97, 98, and 99).

If you want to move the box back to the top window, press the F6 key again.

Here’s how to stop using horizontal windows. For Quattro Pro, say Window Options Clear; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Window Clear.

Titles

You should put a heading at the top of each column. For example, if column B contains financial information for January, and column C contains financial information for February, you should put the word January at the top of column B, and the word February at the top of column C. Since the words January and February are at the top of the columns, they’re in row 1. They’re called the column titles.

If row 2 analyzes Income, and row 3 analyzes Expenses, you should put the word Income at the left edge of row 2, and the word Expenses at the left edge of row 3. Since the words Income and Expenses are at the left edge of the spreadsheet, they’re in column A. They’re called the row titles.

So in a typical spreadsheet, the column titles are in row 1, and row titles are in column A.

Unfortunately, when you move to a different part of the spreadsheet (by tapping the PAGE DOWN key or TAB key), the titles tend to disappear from the screen, and you forget the purpose of each row and column.

__Procedure__ Before playing with titles, clear away any vertical or horizontal windows that you created.

Then move the box to cell B2. For Quattro Pro, say Window Options Locked-titles Both; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Titles Both.

Afterwards, even if you tap the PAGE DOWN or TAB key, the titles will stay on the screen.

After you’ve forced the titles to stay on the screen, you can’t move the box to row 1 or column A anymore. Row 1 and column A are off limits. For example, if you press the HOME key, which tries to send the box to cell A1, the box will go only as far as cell B2; it will stay in B2.

If you *want* to move the box to row 1 or column A (so you can revise the titles), you must cancel the titles command. Here’s how. For Quattro Pro, say Window Options Locked-titles Clear; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Titles Clear.

Manual recalculation

Suppose you’ve created a gigantic spreadsheet, containing dozens of rows and columns (all filled with numbers, formulas, and words), and you want to change four of the numbers.

The normal way is to point to the cell containing the first number, retype the number, press the ENTER key, and then *wait for the computer to recalculate all the formulas that use the number*. If the spreadsheet is large, hundreds of cells might contain formulas using the number, and you might wait a long time for the computer to recalculate them all.

When the computer has finished recalculating, you point to the second number to change, retype it, press the ENTER key, and again *wait for the computer to recalculate all the formulas using that number*. Next, retype the third number, press the ENTER key, and *wait*. Then retype the fourth number, press the ENTER key, and *wait*.

So to change the four numbers, you must wait four times for the computer to recompute all relevant formulas in the spreadsheet. You’ll be annoyed when you have to wait so long, four times!

To avoid waiting four times, do this: for Quattro Pro, say Options Recalculation Mode Manual then press the Esc key twice; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Global Recalculation Manual. Then move around the spreadsheet and retype the four numbers. When you press the ENTER key after each number (or RETURN or an arrow key), the computer will *not* automatically recalculate all the formulas; instead, the computer will put onto the screen a note saying "Calculate" (or "CALC"), which means "I ought to recalculate all the formulas, but I’m not going to bother." Since the computer doesn’t bother to recalculate all the formulas, the computer is immediately ready for you to type more numbers; you do *not* have to wait for the computer.

After you’ve typed all four numbers (without ever having to wait for the computer), and you’ve pressed the ENTER key after each number, and you’re finally ready for your coffee break, press the F9 key.

Pressing the F9 key makes the computer recalculate all the formulas. While the computer is recalculating, go have your cup of coffee. When you come back, all the formulas will have been recalculated, and the "Calculate" note will be gone.

Using that method, you must wait for the computer only once (during your coffee break), instead of waiting four times.

That method is called manual recalculation. Instead of recalculating automatically each time you press the ENTER key, the computer recalculates when you press the F9 key, which manually triggers the recalculation.

If you ever want the computer to go back to recalculating automatically, do this: for Quattro Pro, say Options Recalculation Mode Background then press the Esc key twice; for 1-2-3, say Worksheet Global Recalculation Automatic.

Graph on screen

Suppose you’re running a company that sells Day-Glo Pink Hair Dye. (Your motto is: "To brighten your day, stay in the pink!")

You have two salespeople, Joe and Sue. Joe’s worked for you a long time, and sells about $8,000 worth of dye each month. Sue joined your company recently and is rapidly improving at encouraging people to turn their hair pink. (She does that by inventing slogans for various age groups, such as "Feminine babes wear pink!", "You look so sweet with your new hair style — spun, pink, cotton candy!", "Don’t be a dink! Go pink!", "Pink is punk!", "Pink: the color that says *I’ll be your Valentine, but lighten up!*", "Be what you drink — a Pink Lady!", "Let that sexy, slinky, pink panther inside you glow!", "Love is a pink Cadillac — with hair to match!", and "When you’re in a sour mood, look like a pink grapefruit!")

This spreadsheet shows how many dollars worth of dye Joe and Sue sold each month:

A B C D E F

1 January February March

2 Joe 8000 6500 7400

3 Sue 2000 4300 12500

The spreadsheet shows that Joe sold $8000 worth of dye in January, $6500 in February, and $7400 in March.

Sue’s a trainee. She sold just $2000 worth in January, but her monthly sales zoomed up to $12500 by March.

Let’s turn that spreadsheet into a graph. First, type the spreadsheet. Here’s what to do next.…

__Quattro Pro__ Point at the spreadsheet’s top left corner (cell A1) by pressing the HOME key. Say Graph. You’ll see the graph menu.

Choose Graph-type (by typing G). If you want to create a line graph like this —

choose Line (by typing B). If instead you want to create a bar graph like this —

choose Bar (by typing B).

You’ll see the graph menu again. Choose Fast-graph (by typing F), point at the last number (cell D3), and press ENTER. You’ll see the graph you desired, except that two titles are missing: the main title ("How much we sold") and the Y-axis title ("Dollar Sales").

Here’s how to add those two titles to your screen’s graph.…

Press ENTER. You’ll see the graph menu again. Choose Text (by typing T). Type the number 1, then the main title ("How much we sold"), then press ENTER. Type a Y, then the Y-axis title ("Dollar Sales"), then press ENTER. Press the Esc key.

You’ll see the graph menu again. Choose View (by typing V). You’ll see the whole graph, including the two titles. Press ENTER.

You’ll see the graph menu again. When you finish playing with graphs, press the ESCAPE key. That makes the graph menu disappear.

The computer will remember what kind of graph you wanted. If you revise the numbers in the spreadsheet, you can see the revised graph by just pressing the F10 key. The graph will immediately appear. After you’ve admired it, press the ENTER key.

If you save the spreadsheet (by saying File Save), the computer automatically saves the graph also. Later, if you retrieve the spreadsheet (by saying File Retrieve), the computer retrieves the graph also; to see the graph, just press the F10 key.

__1-2-3__ Say Graph. You’ll see the graph menu, which offers you several choices.

Choose Group (by typing G), point at the first heading (cell B1), type a period, point at the last number (cell D3), press ENTER, and say Rowwise (by typing R).

You’ll see the graph menu again. Choose View (by typing V). You’ll see a graph. It looks *almost* as good as this —

but your screen’s graph is missing three items: the title ("How much we sold"), the Y-axis label ("Dollar Sales"), and the legend (which says that the box is "Joe" and the plus sign is "Sue").

Here’s how to add those three items to your screen’s graph.…

Press ENTER. You’ll see the graph menu again. Choose Options (by typing the letter O). You’ll see the options menu.

Choose Titles First (by typing TF). Type the title ("How much we sold") and press ENTER.

You’ll see the options menu again. Choose Titles Y-axis (by typing TY). Type the Y-axis label ("Dollar Sales") and press ENTER.

You’ll see the options menu again. Choose Legend Range (by typing LR), point at the first person (cell A2), type a period, point at the last person (cell A3), and press ENTER.

You’ll see the options menu again. (If you have a color monitor and want to see graphs in color instead of monochrome, choose Color by typing C.)

From the options menu, choose Quit (by typing Q). That gets rid of the options menu.

You’ll see the graph menu. Choose View again. You’ll see the whole graph, including the title, Y-axis label, and legend. That kind of graph is called a line graph.

Press ENTER. You’ll see the graph menu again.

If you want to see a bar graph, choose Type Bar, then choose View again. You’ll see this bar graph:

When you finish admiring that graph, press ENTER, so you see the graph menu again. If you want to see the line graph again, choose Type Line, then choose View again, and when you finish admiring the graph press ENTER, so you see the graph menu again.

When you finish playing with graphs, choose Quit. That makes the graph menu disappear.

The computer will remember what kinds of graph you wanted. If you revise the numbers in the spreadsheet, you can see the revised graph by just pressing the F10 key. The graph will immediately appear. After you’ve admired it, press the F10 key again.

If you save the spreadsheet (by saying File Save), the computer automatically saves the graph also. Later, if you retrieve the spreadsheet (by saying File Retrieve), the computer retrieves the graph also; to see the graph, just press the F10 key.

Graph on paper

Here’s how to print a graph on paper.

__Quattro Pro__ Get the graph onto the screen. Press ESCAPE several times, until the graph and menus disappear. Say Print Graph-print Go (by typing /PGG).

__1-2-3 version 2.3 and 2.4__ Get the graph onto the screen. Press ESCAPE several times, until the graph and menus disappear. (Then if you’re using version 2.3, turn Wysiwyg on by doing this: say Add-in Attach by typing /AA; move the box to "WYSIWYG.ADN" by repeatedly pressing the right-arrow key; press ENTER; and choose No-key Quit by typing NQ.)

Move the box below your spreadsheet. (To do that, move the box to column A, then down to the bottom row that contains your data, then down two more rows.)

Type a colon (:). To do that, remember that you must press the SHIFT key. Then you’ll see the Wysiwyg menu. From that menu, choose Graph Add Current (by typing GAC). Type a period, then move the box to column G and down 15 more rows. (The farther you move to the right and down, the bigger your graph will be.) Press ENTER. You’ll see the graph below your spreadsheet. Choose Quit (by typing Q).

Type a colon, so you see the Wysiwyg menu again. Choose Print (by typing P).

You’ll see the Wysiwyg print menu. Choose Range Set (by typing RS). To print the spreadsheet and the graph, point at the first cell you want to print (which is usually A1), type a period, point at the last cell you want to print (at the graphic’s bottom row in column G), and press ENTER.

You’ll see the Wysiwyg print menu again.

If nobody told Wysiwyg what kind of printer you bought, do so now. Here’s how. From the Wysiwyg print menu, choose Config Printer (by typing CP). Point at the resolution level you want (the higher the resolution you choose, the prettier but slower your printer will print), and press ENTER. Choose Quit.

You’ll see the Wysiwyg print menu again. Choose Go (by typing G). The printer will go print.

__1-2-3 version 2.2__ Get the graph onto the screen. Press ESCAPE several times, until the graph and menus disappear.

Say Graph Save (by typing /GS). Type a name for the graph (invent whatever name you like), then press ENTER. The computer will copy the graph onto the hard disk. Say Quit (by typing Q).

Get out of 1-2-3 (by saying Quit Yes). If you started 1-2-3 by saying "do 123", type "cd 123".

Type "pgraph" (so the computer runs the PGRAPH print-graph program in your 123 subdirectory).

The computer will display this PGRAPH menu:

Image-select Settings Go Align Page Exit

The first time you use the PGRAPH program, tell it which hardware you bought. Here’s how:

If you’re using a colleague’s computer, ask whether this procedure was done already. Say Settings Hardware (by typing SH). You’ll see the hardware menu. Choose Graphs-directory (by typing G), type "c:\123", and press ENTER. You’ll see the hardware menu again. Choose Fonts-directory (by typing F), type "c:\123" again, and press ENTER. You’ll see the hardware menu again. Choose Printer (by typing P), point at the resolution level you want (the higher the resolution you choose, the prettier but slower your printer will print), press the SPACE bar (which makes the symbol # appear), and press ENTER. You’ll see the hardware menu again. Choose Quit (by typing Q). Say Save (by typing S). You’ll see the PGRAPH menu again. Now PGRAPH knows which hardware you bought.

Here’s how to make the PGRAPH program print the graph:

Choose Image-select by typing I. You’ll see a list of all the graphs on your hard disk. Point at the graph you want to print, press the SPACE bar (which makes the symbol # appear), and press ENTER.

You’ll see the PGRAPH menu again. Choose Go (by typing G). The computer will go print the graph.

You’ll see the PGRAPH menu again. Choose Exit Yes by typing EY. That makes the computer stop using the PGRAPH program.

You’ll see a DOS prompt. If you want to run the 1-2-3 program again, type "123"; if you want to return to the DOS root directory instead, type "cd \".