Starting

The fanciest word-processing program ever invented is Microsoft Word. It runs in all three popular environments (DOS, Windows, and Mac) and uses similar commands in each of those environments.

Other versions

This chapter explains how to use version 6 of Microsoft Word for Windows and version 7 of Microsoft Word for Windows 95.

Microsoft Word’s other versions are similar. If you’re using version 97, follow my instructions for version 7, which it resembles.

Mac If you’re using a Mac instead of Windows, here’s the main difference: instead of pressing the Ctrl key, press the COMMAND key (on which you’ll see a squiggly cloverleaf — and also see an apple if your keyboard is modern).

Old versions If your version of Microsoft Word is older than version 6, you should upgrade to version 6, 7, or beyond!

If you can’t upgrade (because you have no money or because your computer has too little RAM or too slow a CPU to run Word well), phone me at 617-666-2666 to get an older version of this book. The 19th edition explained version 2 of Word for Windows and also version 5.1 of Word for the Mac. So did the 18th and 17th editions.

Prepare yourself

Before reading this chapter, prepare yourself.

Version 7 Make sure you have the minimum requirements: Windows 95 and at least 8M of RAM. To run well, you should have at least 16M of RAM and a fast CPU (Pentium). Read and practice my Windows 95 chapter.

Version 6 Make sure you have the minimum requirements: Windows 3.1 (or 3.11 or 95) and at least 4M of RAM. To run well, you should have at least 8M of RAM and a fast CPU (486 or Pentium). If you have Windows 95, you should switch to version 7 of Microsoft Word — and this chapter assumes you’ve done so. If you do not have Windows 95, read and practice my Windows 3.1&3.11 chapter.

Copy Microsoft Word to hard disk

When you buy Microsoft Word, it comes on one or more disks, which you must copy to your computer’s hard disk.

Version 7 Microsoft Word 7.0A comes on a CD-ROM disk, as part of the Home & Small Business Value Pack. Here’s how to copy Microsoft Word to your hard disk.

Turn on the computer without any floppy or CD-ROM disks in the drives, so the computer runs Windows 95 and the computer’s bottom left corner says Start. Put the Home & Small Business Value Pack CD into the CD-ROM drive. Double-click the My Computer icon, then the CD-ROM’s icon (which is labeled "Wxpb_95us$1" and is also typically labeled "D:" or "E:"), then the "Word" folder, then the "Disk1" folder, then the "Setup" icon that shows a picture of a computer.

The computer will say "Microsoft Word for Windows 95 Setup". Press the ENTER key 3 times.

The computer will say "CD Key". The CD-ROM disk came in a square plastic case, whose backside sports an orange sticker revealing a 10-digit code number (called the "CD Key number"); type that number and press ENTER.

The computer will show you a 20-digit Product Identification number. Write that number on the yellow-black-and-white registration card that came with the CD. Press ENTER 4 times.

The computer will say, "Microsoft Word for Windows 95 Setup was completed successfully." Press ENTER.

Close all the windows (by clicking their X boxes).

Version 6 Microsoft Word 6 comes on floppy disks. Here’s how to copy Microsoft Word to your hard disk.

Turn on the computer without any floppy in drive A. Start Windows (by typing "win" after the C prompt). You’ll see the Program Manager Window.

Choose Run from the File menu. The computer will say "Command Line".

What happens next depends on how you bought Word.

If you bought just Microsoft Word — without buying Microsoft Office — you get a box that contains two manuals, nine 1.44M floppies, and a coupon you can mail to Microsoft to get 1.2M floppies instead. Do this:

Put Disk 1 in drive A. Type "a:setup" (and press ENTER).

The computer will say "Microsoft Word 6.0 Setup". Press ENTER.

If Disk 1 was never used before, the computer will ask you to type your name. Type your name, press the TAB key, and type the name of your company (if any).

Press ENTER several times, until the computer says, "Please insert Disk 2." Put Disk 2 in drive A and press ENTER. When the computer tells you, do the same for Disks 3 through 9.

The computer will say, "Microsoft Word Setup needs to restart Windows." Press ENTER.

Close the Microsoft Office window. Close the Program Manager window.

The computer will say "Exit Windows". Press ENTER.

Then turn off the computer, so you can start fresh.

If you bought the upgrade version of Microsoft Office Professional, you get a box that includes Microsoft Word, Microsoft Excel (a spreadsheet program), Microsoft Access (a database program), and other software. The box is huge because it contains ten manuals, thirty-one 1.44M floppies, and a coupon you can mail to get 1.2M floppies instead. Do this:

Put Disk 1 in drive A. Type "a:setup" (and press ENTER).

The computer will say "Microsoft Office 4.3 Professional Setup". Press ENTER.

If Disk 1 was never used before, the computer will ask you to type your name. Type your name, press the TAB key, and type the name of your company (if any).

Press ENTER several times, until the computer says, "Choose the type of installation by clicking one of the buttons." If you click the Complete/Custom button, the computer will install Microsoft Office Professional completely and consume 114 megabytes of your hard disk. If you click the Typical button, the computer will install just the most commonly used features of Microsoft Office Professional and consume just 58 megabytes of your hard disk. If you click the Laptop/Minimum button, the computer will install just the minimum features you need to survive and consume just 29 megabytes of your hard disk. Click one of those buttons.

Press ENTER several times, until the computer says, "Please insert Disk 2". Put Disk 2 in drive A and press ENTER. When the computer tells you, do the same for Disks 3 through 31.

If the computer says "Setup couldn’t create a SYSTEM.MDA file", press ENTER.

The computer will say, "Setup needs to restart Windows." Press ENTER.

Close the Microsoft Office Cue Cards window (by double-clicking its control box).

Close the Microsoft Office window. Close the Program Manager window.

The computer will say "Exit Windows". Press ENTER.

Then turn off the computer, so you can start fresh.

Launch Microsoft Word

Here’s how to start using Microsoft Word.

Version 7 Click "Start" then "Programs" then "Microsoft Word".

If the computer shows a window saying "What’s New in Microsoft Word 95", click that window’s X box.

Version 6 Turn on the computer without any floppy in drive A. Start Windows (by typing "win" after the C prompt). If the computer says "Microsoft Office Cue Cards", close the Microsoft Office Cue Cards window (by double-clicking its control box). The computer says "Program Manager".

If you see a slanted W near the screen’s top right corner, click it. If you don’t see a slanted W, double-click the Microsoft Office icon then the Microsoft Word icon.

The screen’s top says:

Microsoft Word - Document 1

You also see this menu bar:

+──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐

¦File Edit View Insert Format Tools Table Window Help │

└──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘

If the computer says "Tip of the Day", press ENTER.

See the rulers

About 2 inches down from the top of the screen, you should see a horizontal ruler, which goes across the screen and is numbered 1", 2", 3", 4", 5", etc. If you don’t see that ruler, make it appear by choosing Ruler from the View menu.

At the screen’s left edge, you should see a vertical ruler, which goes up & down the screen and is numbered 1", 2", etc. If you don’t see the vertical ruler, make it appear by choosing Page Layout from the View menu.

Now you see two rulers — a horizontal ruler, plus a vertical ruler — so you can use the full power of Microsoft Word!

Let’s begin.…

Type your document

Start typing your document.

Microsoft Word uses the mouse and fundamental keys the same way as WordPad and Windows Write. For details, read these sections on pages 98-99:

"Use the keyboard"

"Scroll arrows"

"Insert characters"

"Split a paragraph"

"Combine paragraphs"

While you type, version 7 automatically puts a red squiggle under any word that looks strange. The computer considers a word to look "strange" if the word’s not in the computer’s dictionary or if the word’s the same as the word before. For example, if you type "I luv you you!", the computer will put a red squiggle under "luv" and under the second "you". If you see a red squiggle, you misspelled the word or accidentally repeated the word or your vocabulary or grammar is more advanced than the computer understands. So if you see a red squiggle, look carefully at the squiggled word to make sure it’s really what you want.

All delete

Here’s how to delete the entire document, so you can start over.…

While holding down the Ctrl key, press the A key. That means "all". All of the document turns black.

Then press the DELETE key. All of the document disappears, so you can start over!

Movement keys

To move to different parts of your document, you can use your mouse. To move faster, press these movement keys instead:

Key you press Where pointer moves

right-arrow right to the next character

left-arrow left to the previous character

down-arrow down to the line below

up-arrow up to the line above

END right to the end of the line

HOME left to the beginning of line

PAGE DOWN down to the next screenful

PAGE UP up to the previous screenful

Formatting toolbar

Near the screen’s top, you see the formatting toolbar, which in version 6 looks like this:

 

 

(In version 7, it’s slightly wider.)

Each symbol on the toolbar is called a tool. Here’s the name of each tool:

 

 

 

 

 

 

If you forget a tool’s name, try this trick: point at the tool (by using the mouse, but without clicking), then wait a second. Underneath the tool, you’ll see the tool’s name; and at the screen’s bottom left corner, you’ll see a one-sentence explanation of what the tool does.

The toolbar’s right half consists of 12 tools saying "B", "I", "U", etc. Those 12 tools are called buttons. (Version 7 includes a 13th button, called "Highlight", just right of the "U".)

To use a button, press it by clicking it with the mouse. Here are the details.…

Underline

Here’s how to underline a phrase (like this). Push in the Underline button (which says U on it) by clicking it. Then type the phrase you want underlined. Then pop the Underline button back out (by clicking it again).

Bold

Here’s how to make a phrase be bold (like this). Push in the Bold button (which says B on it) by clicking it. Then type the phrase you want emboldened. Then pop the Bold button back out (by clicking it again).

Here’s how to make a phrase be bold and underlined (like this). Push in the Bold and Underline buttons (by clicking them both). Then type the phrase. Then pop those buttons back out (by clicking them again).

Italic

Here’s how to italicize a phrase (like this). Push in the Italic button (which says I on it) by clicking it. Then type the phrase you want italicized. Then pop the Italic button back out (by clicking it again).

Align

While typing a line, you can click one of these alignment buttons:

Align Left Center Align Right Justify

────── ────── ────── ──────

──── ──── ──── ──────

────── ────── ────── ──────

──── ──── ──── ──────

────── ────── ────── ──────

──── ──── ──── ──────

Clicking the Center button makes the line be centered,

like this line

Clicking the Align Right button makes the line be at the right margin,

like this line

Clicking the Align Left button makes the line be at the left margin,

like this line

Clicking one of those buttons affects not just the line you’re typing but also all other lines in the same paragraph.

Clicking the Justify button makes the paragraph be justified, so the paragraph’s bottom line is at the left margin, and each of the paragraph’s other lines is at both margins (by inserting extra space between the words),

like this line

When you click one of those alignment buttons, you’re pushing the button in. That button pops back out when you push a different alignment button instead.

When you start typing a new document, the computer assumes you want the document to be aligned left, so the computer pushes the Align Left button in. If you want a different alignment, push a different alignment button instead.

For example, if you’re typing a title or headline and want it to be centered, press the Center button. If you’re typing a business letter and want it to begin by showing the date next to the right margin, press the Align Right button. If you’re typing an informal memo or letter to a colleague or friend, and want the paragraph to look plain, ordinary, modest, and unassuming (like Clark Kent), press the Align Left button. If you’re creating something formal (such as a newspaper or textbook) and want the paragraph to have perfectly straight edges (so it looks official, uptight, and professional, like Robocop), press the Justify button.

Clicking one of those alignment buttons affects the entire paragraph you’re typing. (The paragraphs you typed earlier remain unaffected.)

To change the alignment of a paragraph you typed earlier, click in the middle of that paragraph and then click the alignment button you wish.

When you start typing a new paragraph, the computer gives that paragraph the same alignment as the paragraph above, unless you say differently (by pressing one of the alignment buttons).

Centered title Here’s how to type a centered title, using the techniques you’ve learned so far.…

Press the ENTER key twice (to leave a big blank space above the title).

Next, press the Center button (so the title will be centered) and the Bold button (so the title will be bold). Type the words you want to be in the title, and press the ENTER key afterwards.

Congratulations! You’ve created a centered title!

Next, make the paragraph underneath the title be normal: make that paragraph be uncentered (click the Align Left button or Justify button) and make it be unbolded (click the Bold button, so the Bold button pops back out).

Font size

Look at the Font Size box. In that box, you normally see the number 10. That means the characters you’re typing are 10 points high. Here’s how to type characters that are bigger or smaller.…

Method 1: click the Font Size box. In that box, type a size number from 8 to 72. The number can end in .5; the number can be 8 or 8.5 or 9 or 9.5 or 10 or bigger. (Theoretically, you can pick a number even smaller than 8 or even bigger than 72, but those extreme numbers create ugly results.) When you finish typing the number, press the ENTER key.

Method 2: click the down-arrow that’s to the right of the Font Size box. You start seeing this list of popular sizes: 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 36, 48, and 72. (It appears in a window that’s too small to show the entire list; to see the rest of the list, click the window’s scroll arrows.) That list of popular sizes is called the Font Size menu. Click the size you want.

Afterwards, whatever characters you type will be the size you chose. (The characters you typed earlier remain unaffected.)

The popular sizes look like this:

This text is 8 points high, 9 points high, 10 points high, 11 points high, 12 points high, 14 points high, 16 points high, 18 points high,
20 pt., 22 pt., 24 pt., 26 pt., 28 pt., 36pt.,48pt.,72pt.

When you finish typing the enlarged or reduced characters, here’s how to return to typing characters that are normal size (10-point): click the down-arrow that’s to the right of the Font Size box, then click the 10.

Font

When you type, you’re normally using a font called "Times New Roman". If you wish, you can switch to a different font instead.

The most popular Windows fonts are "Times New Roman", "Arial", and "Courier New". Here’s how they look:

This font is called "Times New Roman". It’s the best for typing long passages of text, such as paragraphs in books, newspapers, magazines, and reports. It squeezes lots of words onto a small amount of paper but remains easy to read. You can make it plain or bold or italic or bold italic.

If you make it big & bold, like this, it imitates an old-fashioned news headline.

This font is called "Arial". It’s simple. You can make it plain or bold or italic or bold italic. It resembles Helvetica. It’s best for typing short phrases that attract attention. For example.…

If you make it big & bold, like this, it’s good for titles, signs, and posters.

If you make it small, like this, it’s good for footnotes, photo captions, classified ads, telephone books, directories, and catalogs.

This font is called "Courier New".

If you make it 12 points high, like this, it resembles the printout from a typewriter.

It makes each character have the same width: for example, the "m" has the same width as the "I". It’s a good font for typing tables of numbers, since the uniform width lets you line up each column of numbers easily. To make sure each column aligns properly, press the Align Left button, not the Justify button.

Choose plain, bold, italic, or bold italic.

In the Font box, you see the name of a font, which is usually "Times New Roman". Click the down-arrow that’s to the right of that font’s name. You start seeing a list of fonts, including "Times New Roman", "Arial", "Courier New", and several other fonts. (It appears in a window that’s too small to show the entire list; to see the rest of the list, click the window’s scroll arrows.) The list of font is called the Font menu.

The best fonts have "TT" written in front of them. The "TT" means the font is a True Type font (created by a system that lets you make the characters as big or as small as you wish and accurately reproduces those characters onto your screen and paper). For example, "Times New Roman", "Arial", and "Courier New" are True Type fonts and have "TT" written in front of them.

Click the font you want.

Afterwards, whatever characters you type will be in the font you chose. (The characters you typed earlier remain unaffected.)

When you finish typing in that font, here’s how to return to typing characters that are normal (Times New Roman): click the down-arrow that’s to the right of the Font box, then click Times New Roman.

Style

When you type, you typically use style called "Normal", which is 10-point Times New Roman aligned left.

If you wish, you can switch to a different style instead. For example, you can switch to a style called "Heading 1", which is 14-point Arial with extra blank space between paragraphs. Here’s how.

In the Style box, you see the name of a style, which is typically "Normal". Click the down-arrow next to that style name. You see a list of styles, including "Normal", "Heading 1", and several other styles. The list of styles is called the Style menu.

Click the style you want.

Afterwards, whatever paragraphs you type will be in the style you chose. (The paragraphs you typed earlier remain unaffected.)

When you finish typing a paragraph in that style (and pressed the ENTER key at the end of that paragraph), here’s how to make the next paragraph be Normal: click the down-arrow next to the Style box, then click Normal.

Centered title Here’s the sophisticated way to type a centered title.

Press the ENTER key. Choose "Heading 1" from the Style menu. Push in the Centered button. Type the title, and press the ENTER key afterwards.

The computer will automatically make the next paragraph be Normal and aligned left; you don’t have to say so!

Indent

Before typing a paragraph, you can press the TAB key. That makes the computer indent the paragraph’s first line.

If you want to indent all lines in the paragraph, do this instead of pressing the TAB key: while typing the paragraph, click the Increase Indent button. That makes the computer indent all lines in the paragraph. (The paragraphs you typed earlier remain unaffected.)

When you start typing a new paragraph, the computer indents that paragraph if the paragraph above it was indented.

If you indented a paragraph by clicking the Increase Indent button but then change your mind, here’s how to unindent the paragraph: click in the paragraph, then click the Decrease Indent button.

Example Suppose you start typing a new document. Here’s how to make just paragraphs 3, 4, and 5 be indented.

Type paragraphs 1 and 2 normally (without pressing the Increase Indent button).

When you start typing paragraph 3, press the Increase Indent button. That makes the computer start indenting, so paragraphs 3, 4, and 5 will be automatically indented.

When you start typing paragraph 6, here’s how to prevent the computer from indenting it: click the Decrease Indent button at the beginning of paragraph 6.

Changing your mind To indent a paragraph you typed earlier, click in the middle of that paragraph and then click the Increase Indent button. To unindent a paragraph you typed earlier, click in its middle and then click the Decrease Indent button.

Extra indentation If you click the Increase Indent button twice instead of just once, the computer will indent the paragraph farther. After typing that doubly indented paragraph, if you want the paragraph below to be unindented you must click the Decrease Indent button twice.

Each time you click the Increase Indent button, the computer indents the paragraph a half inch farther. Each time you click the Decrease Indent button, the computer indents the paragraph a half inch less.

Bullets Here’s a different way to indent an entire paragraph: while typing the paragraph, push in the Bullets button (by clicking it). That makes the computer indent the paragraph slightly (just a quarter inch) and also put a bullet (the symbol · ) to the left of the paragraph’s first line. That’s called a bulleted paragraph.

After you’ve typed a bulleted paragraph, any new paragraphs you type underneath will be bulleted also — until you request an unbulleted paragraph (by popping the Bullet button back out).

Numbering Here’s another way to indent an entire paragraph: while typing the paragraph, push in the Numbering button (by clicking it). That makes the computer indent the paragraph slightly (a quarter inch) and put "1." to the left of the paragraph’s first line. That’s called a numbered paragraph.

When you type a new paragraph underneath, that paragraph will be numbered "2.", the next paragraph will be numbered "3.", etc. Any new paragraphs you type underneath will be numbered also — until you request an unnumbered paragraph (by popping the Numbering button back out).

Select text

Here’s how to dramatically change a phrase you typed.

Point at the phrase’s beginning, then drag to the phrase’s end (while holding down the mouse’s left button). The whole phrase turns black. Turning the phrase black is called selecting the phrase.

Then say what to do to the phrase. For example, choose one of these activities:

To underline the phrase, push in the Underline button.

To make the phrase be bold, push in the Bold button.

To italicize the phrase, push in the Italic button.

To prevent the phrase from being underlined, bold, or italicized, pop those buttons back out.

To change how the phrase’s paragraphs are aligned, click one of the alignment buttons.

To change how the phrase’s paragraphs are indented, click one of the indentation buttons.

To change the phrase’s point size, choose the size you want from the Font Size menu.

To change the phrase’s font, choose the font you want from the Font menu.

To change the phrase’s style, choose the style you want from the Style menu.

To delete the phrase, press the DELETE key.

To replace the phrase, just type whatever words you want the phrase to become.

Go ahead! Try it now! It’s fun!

Other ways to select

The usual way to select a phrase is to point at the phrase’s beginning, then drag to the phrase’s end. But sometimes other methods are faster!

To select a phrase, choose one of these methods:

Method 1: point at the phrase’s beginning, then drag to the phrase’s end.

Method 2: click the phrase’s beginning; then while holding down the SHIFT key, click the phrase’s end.

Method 3: by using your keyboard’s movement keys (such as the up-arrow, down-arrow, left-arrow, and right-arrow keys), move to the phrase’s beginning; then while holding down the SHIFT key, use the movement keys to move to the phrase’s end.

Method 4: to select just one word, double-click in its middle.

Method 5: to select just one paragraph, triple-click in its middle.

Method 6: to select several paragraphs, triple-click in the middle of the first paragraph you want; then while holding down the SHIFT key, click in the middle of the last paragraph.

Method 7: to select just one sentence, click in its middle while holding down the Ctrl key.

Method 8: to select the entire document (all!), press the A key while holding down the Ctrl key.

Move a phrase

To move a phrase to a new location, just "select the phrase, and then drag from the phrase’s middle to the new location." Here are the details.…

First, select the phrase you want to move, so the phrase turns black.

Then take your finger off the mouse’s button. Move the mouse’s pointer to the phrase’s middle (so you see an arrow).

Finally, hold down the mouse’s button (so you see a vertical dotted line); and while you keep holding down the mouse’s button, drag that line to wherever you want the phrase to move. (Drag the line anywhere you wish in the document, or drag to the end of the document, but don’t try to drag past the document’s end.)

At the end of the drag, lift your finger from the mouse’s button. Presto, the phrase moves where you wished!

Standard toolbar

Near the screen’s top, above the formatting toolbar, you see the standard toolbar, which in version 6 looks like this:

 

 

 

 

 

 

(Version 7 has "Insert Address" instead of "Insert AutoText" and has "Tip Wizard" instead of "Insert Chart".)

Here’s how to use the most popular of those tools.…

Save

To save the document (copy it onto the disk), click the Save button.

If you haven’t saved the document before, the computer will say "File Name". Invent a short name for your document (no more than 8 characters). Type the name and press ENTER.

That makes the computer copy the document onto the hard disk. For example, if you named the document "mary", the computer will put a document called MARY.DOC into the WINWORD subdirectory (folder).

(If you bought the entire Microsoft Office instead of just Word, the WINWORD folder is inside the MSOFFICE folder.)

Afterwards, if you change your mind and want to do more editing, go ahead! When you finish that extra editing, save it by clicking the Save button again.

Save often If you’re typing a long document, click the Save button about every 10 minutes. Click it whenever you get to a good stopping place and think, "What I’ve typed so far looks good!"

Then if an accident happens, you’ll lose at most 10 minutes of work, and you can return to the last version you felt good about.

Print

Here’s how to print the document onto paper. Make sure you’ve bought a printer, attached it to the computer, turned the printer’s power on, and put paper into the printer. Then click the Print button. The printer will print your document onto paper.

Finish

When you finish working on a document, choose Exit or Close from the File menu.

If you choose Exit, the computer will stop using Microsoft Word, and you’ll see the Windows Program Manager.

If you choose Close instead of Exit, the computer will let you work on another document, and your next step is to click the New button or the Open button.

If you click the New button, the computer will let you start typing a new document.

If you click the Open button and then double-click the name of an old document, the computer will put that document onto the screen and let you edit it.

Didn’t save? If you didn’t save your document before doing those procedures, the computer asks, "Do you want to save?" If you click "Yes", the computer copies your document’s most recent version to the hard disk; if you click "No" instead, the computer ignores and forgets your most recent editing.

Congratulations! You’ve learned all the fundamental commands of Microsoft Word!

Undo

If you make a mistake (such as accidentally deleting some text, or accidentally giving the text an ugly font), click the Undo button (which shows an arrow turning back). That makes the computer undo your last activity, so your text returns to the way it looked before you made your boo-boo.

To undo your last two activities, click the Undo button twice.

If you click the Undo button, the computer might undo a different activity than you expected. If clicking the Undo button accidentally makes the text look even worse instead of better, and you wish you hadn’t clicked the Undo button, you can "undo the undo" by clicking the Redo button (which shows an arrow bending forward).

Show paragraphs

The symbol for "Paragraph" is ¶, which looks like a backwards P.

If you push in the ¶ button (by clicking it), the screen will show a ¶ symbol at the end of each paragraph, so you can easily tell where each paragraph ends. The screen will also show a dot (·) wherever you pressed the SPACE bar and show a right-arrow ( ) wherever you pressed the TAB key, so you easily tell how many times you pressed those keys.

For example, if you typed "I love you" correctly, the screen will show "I·love·you". If you see "I·love···you" instead, you know you accidentally pressed the SPACE bar three times after "love" instead of just once, so you should delete the two extra spaces (by moving there and then pressing the DELETE key twice).

When you finish examining the ¶ symbols and dots and right-arrows, and you’re sure you’ve put just one space between each pair of words, here’s how to make those special symbols vanish: pop the ¶ button back out (by clicking it again).

The f problem When you’re using Windows, the computer’s screen has difficulty showing you the letter "f" correctly. When you type an "f" by using the normal font (10-point Times Roman), the screen shows too little space after the "f".

For example, if you try typing "fM", the screen shows "fM". If you try typing "f" then a space then "M", the screen shows
"f M", which looks as if you hadn’t typed a space after the "f". If you try typing "of Mary", the screen shows "of Mary", which looks as if you hadn’t typed a space after the "of".

Although the screen looks wrong, what you see on paper might look better (depending on which printer you’re using).

To discover how many times you pressed the space bar, press in the ¶ button, and notice how many dots appear. Make sure just one dot appears after each word.

Some conservative Americans have trouble handling dirty words that begin with "f". Notice that Windows has the opposite problem: it has trouble showing words that end in "f".

I hope somebody at Microsoft reads this book and fixes the f problem soon!

Move

Here’s another way to move a phrase to a new location.

Select the phrase (by dragging across it with the mouse, so the phrase turns black). Click the Cut button (which looks like a pair of scissors). The phrase will vanish from its original location.

Then click the new location where you want the phrase to reappear, and click the Paste button (which looks like a clipboard). The phrase will appear there.

Copy

Here’s another way to copy a phrase, so the phrase appears in your document twice.

Select the phrase (by dragging across it with the mouse, so the phrase turns black). Click the Copy button. Then click where you want the copy of the phrase to appear, and click the Paste button. The copy will appear there, so the phrase will be in your document twice.

If you want the phrase to appear in your document a third time, click where you want that additional copy to appear, then click the Paste button again. If you want the phrase to appear in your document a fourth time, click where you want that additional copy, then click the Paste button again.

Format Painter

Suppose one part of your document looks pretty, and one part looks ugly. Here’s how to make the ugly part look as pretty as the pretty part.

Drag across the pretty part, so you’ve selected it and it’s turned black. Click the Format Painter button. Then drag across the ugly part.

The computer will make the ugly part look as pretty as the pretty part. For example, the ugly part will have the same font and font size as the pretty part; it will be underlined, boldfaced, and italicized the same way as the pretty part; and if the pretty part was big enough to include a complete paragraph, the ugly part’s paragraphs will be aligned the same way as the pretty part.

If you do the procedure incorrectly and wish you hadn’t pressed the Format Painter button, just click the Undo button, which makes the document return to its previous appearance.

AutoFormat

If you click the AutoFormat button, the computer will analyze your document and try to improve the way it looks.

For example, if your document contains what seems to be a heading, the computer will make it Arial 14-point bold. If you’re writing a letter that ends with —

Sincerely,

and a few other lines underneath it, the computer will indent the word "Sincerely" and the lines underneath, so they all begin at the center of the paper instead of at the left margin. If a line in your document begins with the symbol * or + or -, and you’ve put a space after that symbol, the computer replaces the symbol with a bullet (· ). If a paragraph begins with a number (such as "1."), the computer indents all the paragraph’s lines, so they’re all indented farther than the "1." The computer makes many other improvements also!

But here’s an exception: if you already tried to fiddle with the appearance of a line, the computer leaves that line alone.

So if you were too stupid to give formatting commands, the computer does the formatting for you. But if you formatted a line yourself, the computer assumes you’re a pro who knows what you’re doing, and the computer leaves your formatting alone.

If you pressed the AutoFormat button and like what the computer did to your document, great! Go ahead and edit the document further!

If you don’t like what the computer did, click the Undo button, which makes the document return to its previous appearance.

Check your spelling

Kan yoo spel gud? Yure nott shoor?

The computer can check the words in your document, to make sure you spelled them all correctly.

For example, type a short document that contains just this one sentence:

Be huppy!

To spell-check the document, click in the middle of the document’s first word ("Be"), then click the Spelling button.

The computer looks up each word in the dictionary. It starts at the word you clicked (the document’s first word), then looks up all the other words also.

For example, if you typed "Be huppy!", the computer finds "Be" in the dictionary but can’t find "huppy". The computer highlights the strange word "huppy" and prints this list of suggestions:

hoopoe

happy

guppy

puppy

Notice that the computer’s immense vocabulary even includes "hoopoe", which is a European bird that looks like a cross between a parrot and a zebra!

You have several choices:

If you meant "hoopoe", "happy", "guppy", or "puppy", click what you meant & then click "Change".

If you meant "huppy" and want to add that slang word to the dictionary, click "Add".

If you meant "huppy" but don’t want to add that slang word to the dictionary, click "Ignore".

If you meant some other word instead, type that word in the "Change To" box and click "Change".

When the computer finishes checking the entire document, the computer says, "The spelling check is complete." Click "OK".

Starting in the middle To spell-check a document, you normally begin by clicking the document’s first word. If you click a different word instead, the computer begins by looking up that word in the dictionary, then checks the words that come afterwards in the document, then checks the document’s beginning.

Columns

In a newspaper, text is printed in many narrow columns. In a business letter, text is printed in a single wide column.

The computer assumes you want a single wide column. Here’s how to tell the computer you want many narrow columns.…

Click the Columns button. You’ll see a tiny picture of a newspaper page that has several columns. Point at that picture’s leftmost column, and drag to the right, until the number of columns you want turns blue.

For example, if you want 3 columns, drag to the right until 3 columns turn blue. If you want 6 columns, drag to the right until 6 columns turn blue.

When you take your finger off the mouse’s button, your entire document changes, so it has as many columns as you requested.

After you’ve finished typing a paragraph (and pressed ENTER), try this experiment: while holding down the Ctrl and SHIFT keys, press ENTER again. That creates a column break: it makes the next paragraph be at the top of the next column.

Change your mind? If you change your mind and want just 1 column, click the Columns button again, so you see the tiny picture of a newspaper page again. Click that picture’s left column, so just one column turns blue.

Tables

In the middle of a document, you can type a table of numbers. Here’s how.

Click the Insert Table button. You see a tiny picture of a table that has 4 rows and 5 columns. Altogether, it contains 20 cells (since 4 times 5 is 20).

Point at that table’s top left cell, and drag down and to the left, until the number of rows and columns you want turns blue.

For example, if you want just 3 rows and 4 columns, drag down and to the right until 3 rows and 4 columns turn blue, so you see 12 blue cells altogether.

When you take your finger off the mouse’s button, you’ll see the table you requested.

Then just fill in the cells with whatever numbers and words you wish. To move from cell to cell, click with the mouse, or press the TAB key (which moves right to the next cell), or press SHIFT with TAB (which moves left to the previous cell), or press the arrow keys repeatedly.

In a cell, you can type a number, word, sentence, or even an entire paragraph! If you start typing a paragraph in a cell, the computer will automatically make the cell and its row taller, so the entire paragraph will fit in the cell. You can even type several paragraphs in a single cell: just press the ENTER key at the end of each paragraph. If you want to indent the first line of one of those paragraphs, press the SPACE bar several times or press Ctrl with TAB.

Gridlines On the screen, each cell is a rectangle made of 4 dotted lines. Those lines are called the gridlines.

When you print the table onto paper, the paper will not show those dotted gridlines: the gridlines appear just on the screen, not on paper.

Extra rows Here’s how to create an extra row at the bottom of the table: click in the table’s bottom right cell, then press the TAB key.

Here’s how to insert an extra row into the middle of the table: click in the row that’s underneath where you want the extra row to appear, then click the Insert Table button again.

Column widths The computer assumes you want the table’s columns to all be the same width. But you can change that assumption!

For example, here’s how to adjust the width of the table’s left column (column 1). Move the mouse until its pointer is on the vertical gridline that separates column 1 from column 2, and the pointer’s shape turns into this symbol: ß à . Then drag the vertical gridline to the right (to make the column wider) or left (to make the column narrower).

If you make a column wider, the computer shrinks all columns to the right of it. If you make a column narrower, the computer expands all columns to the right of it.

If you want to fine-tune the widths of all columns, work from left to right: adjust the width of column 1 (by dragging the gridline that separates it from column 2), then adjust the width of column 2 (by dragging the gridline that separates it from column 3), then adjust the width of column 3 (by dragging the gridline that separates it from column 4), etc.

Numbers If a column contains mostly numbers, here’s how to make that column look prettier, so the numbers are aligned properly.

Move the mouse until its pointer is at the very top of the column and is centered on the gridline above the column, so the pointer’s shape turns into this symbol: . Then click. The entire column turns black.

Push in the Align Right button (on the formatting toolbar). That makes all cells in that column be aligned right, so the numbers are aligned properly.

Table AutoFormat When you’ve finished typing numbers and words into all the cells, try this trick: click in the middle of the table by using the mouse’s right button (instead of the left button). A menu appears on the screen. From that menu, choose Table AutoFormat, then press ENTER.

That makes the computer analyze all your columns and improve their widths. The computer will make each column become just wide enough to hold the data in it.

The computer will also underline the headings atop the columns.

If you like what the computer did to your table, great! Go ahead and edit the table further!

If you don’t like what the computer did, click the Undo button, which makes the table return to its previous appearance.

Below the table When you’ve finished editing the table, here’s how to put paragraphs below it.

Click below the table by using the mouse, or go below the table by pressing the down-arrow key several times. Then type the paragraphs you want below the table.

Delete Here’s how to delete a row, column, or the entire table.

Click in the middle of what you want to delete. From the Table menu, choose Select Row (if you want to delete a row) or Select Column (if you want to delete a column) or Select Table (if you want to delete the entire table). The row, column, or table you selected turns black.

Next, from the Table menu, choose Delete.

Preview

If you’re wondering what a page will look like but don’t want to waste a sheet of paper to find out, click the Print Preview button. The computer will show you a mock-up of what the entire page will look like: you’ll see the entire page, shrunk to fit on the screen.

Since the entire page is shrunk to fit on the screen, the page and its characters look too tiny for you to read the words easily, but you’ll be able to see the page’s overall appearance: how much of the page is filled up, which parts of the page are blank, and whether the info on the page is centered.

Wouldn’t you like to ride in an airplane, fly high above your house, and see an aerial view of your house and neighborhood, so all the people look like tiny specs, and you see — in one amazing view — the overall layout of your house and yard and neighborhood and city? Wouldn’t you be thrilled? Clicking the Print Preview button gives you that same thrill: you see an aerial view of the page you were typing, as if you were flying over it in an airplane: you see the layout of your entire page in one amazing view, and the characters on it look like tiny specs.

While you’re admiring the view, the word "Close" appears at the screen’s top center. When you finish admiring the view, click the word "Close".

Zoom

Look at the Zoom Control box. In that box, you normally see the number 100%. That means the computer’s screen is showing you the actual size of what will appear on paper.

To the right of the Zoom Control box, you see a down-arrow. Click it. You see this Zoom menu:

200%

150%

100%

75%

50%

25%

10%

Page Width

Whole Page

Two Pages

If you click 200%, the computer makes the screen’s characters be twice as big, so you can read them even if you’re sitting far away from the screen or you have poor vision. It’s like looking at the document through a magnifying glass: the document looks enlarged, so you can see the details of each word and character more clearly; but not as many words and characters fit on the screen. Use the arrow keys to see different parts of the page.

Clicking 200% enlarges just what you see on the screen: it does not enlarge what appears on paper.

Try it! Try clicking 200%!

When you finish admiring that view, make the screen return to normal, by choosing 100% from the Zoom menu.

If you click Whole Page instead of 200%, the computer does just the opposite: the computer makes the screen’s characters be very tiny, so the whole page fits on the screen — as if you were doing a print preview.

CONTROL key

On your keyboard, you’ll see a key marked "Ctrl". It’s called the CONTROL key. Here’s how to use it.

Buttons

Try this experiment: while holding down the Ctrl key, tap the U, B, I, L, R, J, E, S, N, or O key.

Pressing Ctrl with U is the same as clicking the Underline button.

Pressing Ctrl with B is the same as clicking the Bold button.

Pressing Ctrl with I is the same as clicking the Italic button.

Pressing Ctrl with L is the same as clicking the Left Align button.

Pressing Ctrl with R is the same as clicking the Right Align button.

Pressing Ctrl with J is the same as clicking the Justify button.

Pressing Ctrl with E is the same as clicking the Center ("Equidistant") button.

Pressing Ctrl with S is the same as clicking the Save button.

Pressing Ctrl with N is the same as clicking the New button.

Pressing Ctrl with O is the same as clicking the Open button.

Partial printing

Clicking the Print button makes the printer print your entire document.

If you want to print just part of your document, do this instead of clicking the Print button: while holding down the Ctrl key, tap the P key.

Then say how much of your document to print.

To print just the page you were working on,

click the Current Page button.

To print just pages 1, 3, and 5 through 8,

click the Pages button, then type "1,3,5-8".

If you selected (blackened) a phrase in your document,

print just that by clicking the Selection button.

Then click "OK".

Page break

After you’ve finished typing a paragraph (and pressed ENTER), try this experiment: while holding down the Ctrl key, press ENTER again. That creates a page break: it makes the next paragraph be at the top of the next page.

If you change your mind, here’s how to remove the page break: click at the beginning of the paragraph you’ve put at the top of a page; then press the BACKSPACE key.

Column break

If you’ve divided your document into columns (by clicking the Columns button), and finished typing a paragraph in one of the columns, try this experiment: while holding down the Ctrl and SHIFT keys, press ENTER again. That creates a column break: it makes the next paragraph be at the top of the next column.

If you change your mind, here’s how to remove the column break: click at the beginning of the paragraph you’ve put at the top of a column; then press the BACKSPACE key.

Controlled movement

When you’re editing your document, here’s what happens if you press the movement keys while holding down the Ctrl key:

Keys you press Where the pointer will move

Ctrl with right-arrow right (to the next word or punctuation symbol)

Ctrl with left-arrow left (to the beginning of a word or punctuation)

Ctrl with down-arrow down to the next paragraph

Ctrl with up-arrow up to the beginning of a paragraph

Ctrl with PAGE DOWN down to the last word on the screen

Ctrl with PAGE UP up to the first word on the screen

Ctrl with END down to the end of the document

Ctrl with HOME up to the beginning of the document

If you’ve typed a document that’s several pages long, here’s how to move back to page 2: press Ctrl with G (which means "go to"); then type a 2 and press ENTER. You’ll see page 2 on the screen. Then press the Esc key.

Find

Here’s how to make the computer search through your document to find whether you’ve used the word "love".

Click where you want the search to begin. (For example, if you want the search to begin at the document’s beginning, click in the middle of the document’s first word.) Then while holding down the Ctrl key, tap the F key. Type the word you want to find ("love") and press ENTER.

The computer searches for "love". If the computer finds a "love" in your document, it highlights that "love" so it turns black. If you want to find the next "love" in your document, press ENTER; if you do not want to search for more "love", press the Esc key instead.

Special symbols

Use the Ctrl key to type special symbols:

Symbol How to type it

© While pressing the Ctrl and Alt keys, type "c".

® While pressing the Ctrl and Alt keys, type "r".

While pressing the Ctrl and Alt keys, type "t".

While pressing the Ctrl and Alt keys, type ".".

¿ While pressing Ctrl and Alt (and SHIFT), type "?".

¡ While pressing Ctrl and Alt (and SHIFT), type "!".

ç While pressing Ctrl, tap the "," key. Then type "c".

¢ While pressing Ctrl, tap the "/" key. Then type "c".

ø While pressing Ctrl, tap the "/" key. Then type "o".

ñ While pressing Ctrl (and SHIFT), type "~". Then type "n".

ô While pressing Ctrl (and SHIFT), type "^". Then type "o".

ü While pressing Ctrl (and SHIFT), type ":". Then type "u".

å While pressing Ctrl (and SHIFT), type "@". Then type "a".

æ While pressing Ctrl (and SHIFT), type "&". Then type "a".

œ While pressing Ctrl (and SHIFT), type "&". Then type "o".

ß While pressing Ctrl (and SHIFT), type "&". Then type "s".

è While pressing Ctrl, type the symbol `. Then type "e".

é While pressing Ctrl, type the symbol '. Then type "e".

ð While pressing Ctrl, type the symbol '. Then type "d".

« While pressing Ctrl, type the symbol `. SHIFTing, type "<".

» While pressing Ctrl, type the symbol `. SHIFTing, type ">".