Most new computers come withWindows 95. This chapter explains how to use it.
Windows 95 was invented in 1995 by Microsoft and remained popular in 1995, 1996, and 1997. Microsoft has been trying to develop a slightly fancier version, calledWindows 98, to come out in the middle of 1998.
This chapter discusses Windows 95. (Most info in this chapter will still work if you’re using Windows 98.)
If you’re using an older version of Windows (such as Windows 3.0, Windows 3.1, or Windows 3.11), turn to the next chapter instead, which is called "Windows 3.1 & 3.11". If you’re not using Windows at all — if you’re using just MS-DOS or a Mac — turn to the MS-DOS or Mac chapters.
Acquiring Windows 95
If your computer is modern, it already has Windows 95 on it, so you can skip ahead to the next topic (called "Turn on").
CostIf you have an old computer that lacks Windows 95, you can buy Windows 95 for $179.95.
If your computer lacks Windows 95 but includes an older, decent version of Windows (Windows 3.0 or 3.1 or 3.11 or OS/2 version 2), you can upgrade to Windows 95 by getting theWindows 95 upgrade, which costs just $89.95.
The upgrade comes in two versions. If you have a CD-ROM drive, buy theCD-ROM version, which comes on a single CD-ROM disk. If you don’t have a CD-ROM drive, you must buy the floppy-disk version instead, which lacks some features and comes on a pile of thirteen 1.44M floppy disks.
Hardware requirementsTo run Windows 95, you need a hard drive, a VGA graphics video card, at least 4M of RAM, and a modern CPU (a 386, 486, or Pentium).
If your RAM’s just 4M or your CPU’s just a 386, Windows 95 runs so slowly you’ll curse it. To run Windows 95 reasonably, you need at least 8M of RAM and a fast CPU (a 486 or Pentium).
Many Windows 95 programs want even more RAM: 16M! To avoid hassles and delays, get at least 16M!
You should also buy a mouse. Without a mouse, you must use awkward keystrokes that are hard to remember.
Since Windows 95 tries to use color to grab your attention, you should buy a color monitor.
To use the best version of the upgrade, get a CD-ROM drive.
Installation procedureHere’s how to put Windows 95 onto a computer having a CD-ROM drive and Windows 3.1:
Turn on the computer without any floppy in drive A. If the computer says "C:\>", type "win" (and press ENTER).
The computer says "Program Manager". Choose Run from the File menu (by clicking the word File, then clicking the word Run).
The computer says "Command Line". Put the Windows 95 CD-ROM disk into the CD-ROM drive. If your computer is normal, the CD-ROM drive is called "drive D" and you should type this:
(If your CD-ROM drive is called "drive E" instead, type "e:setup"; if your CD-ROM drive is called "drive K" instead, type "k:setup".) At the end of typing the setup line, press the ENTER key.
The computer says "Windows 95 Setup". Press ENTER.
The computer says "Software License Agreement". Click the Yes button.
The computer says "Windows 95 Setup Wizard". Press ENTER four times.
The computer says "User Information". In the Name box, type your name (unless it’s been typed for you already). Click in the Company box, where you then type the name of your company (unless it’s been typed for you already or you have no company). When the entire screen looks correct (and the Name and Company boxes finally show your correct name and company), press ENTER.
The computer says "Product Identification". The CD-ROM disk comes in a small square cardboard sleeve, whose backside sports an orange sticker revealing a 10-digit code number (called the "CD Key number"); type that number (including the hyphen) and press ENTER.
The computer says "Analyzing Your Computer". If your computer stands alone (instead of being wired to another computer in an office network), press ENTER.
If your computer contains a modem, the computer says "Get Connected". Click the Microsoft Network box and the Microsoft Fax box. Press ENTER.
The computer says "Windows Components". Press ENTER three times.
The computer says "Insert Disk". Grab a blank formatted disk, scribble "Windows 95 Startup Disk" on its label, and put it in drive A. Press ENTER.
The computer says, "Please remove the disk." Remove the disk from drive A, then press ENTER.
The computer says, "Remove any disks from their drives." Remove the CD-ROM disk from the CD-ROM drive, then press ENTER.
The computer automatically reboots. It says "Starting Windows 95" then says "Getting ready to run Windows 95 for the first time".
If the computer says "The Start menu will be easier for you to use if you reduce the number of program groups you currently have", press ENTER.
The computer says "Time Zone". The computer can handle dozens of time zones worldwide, such as Pacific Time, Mountain Time, Arizona Time (which is like Mountain Time but without daylight savings), Central Time, Mexico City & Tegucigalpa & Saskatchewan Time (like Central Time but without daylight savings), Eastern Time, and Indiana & Lima & Bogota Time (like Eastern Time but without daylight savings). The computer assumes you’re in the Pacific time zone; if you live elsewhere, press the right-arrow key (or left-arrow) several times, until your time zone is chosen. Press ENTER.
If you have a modem, here’s what happens next:
The computer says "Inbox Setup Wizard". Press ENTER two more times.
The computer says "Location Information". If you’re not in the USA, press right-arrow (or left-arrow) several times until your country is chosen. Press the TAB key, then type your area code (or foreign-city code). If you use an office phone requiring you to press 9 for an outside line, press TAB then 9. If your phone is so old-fashioned that it lacks touch-tone dialing, click the "Pulse dialing" button. Press ENTER twice.
If your modem is external, turn it on.
Press ENTER four times. Type your phone number (to be used for sending faxes) and press ENTER.
Finally, the computer says "Welcome to Windows 95". Press ENTER.
Click the Start button (at the screen’s bottom left corner). Click the Shut Down icon. Press ENTER. The computer eventually says, "It’s now safe to turn off your computer." Turn off the computer, so you can start fresh.
When Windows 95 is in your computer, here’s how to start using it.
Turn on the computer, without any disks in the floppy drives. (For details, read "Prepare to operate" on page 94. For free help, phone me anytime at 617-666-2666.)
The computer says "Starting Windows 95". Then it says "Microsoft Windows 95".
Welcome to Windows Setup
If the computer says "Welcome to Windows Setup" (because this is the first time the computer is being used, and Windows was put onto the computer by the manufacturer), do this:
Press the ENTER key. The computer says "User Information". Type your name (so your name appears in the Name box). If you work for a company, then press the TAB key and type the company’s name, so it appears in the Company box.
Press the ENTER key. The computer says "License of Windows 95".
Press the ENTER key. The computer says "License Agreement". Press the TAB key (so a dot appears next to "I accept the agreement".)
Press the ENTER key. The computer says "Certificate of Authenticity". Find the Windows 95 instruction manual that came with the computer; on the manual’s front cover, you see a Certificate of Authenticity; on that certificate, you see a Product ID number above the bar code; type that number.
Press the ENTER key three times. The computer restarts, says "Starting Windows 95" again, and says "Microsoft Windows 95" again.
Then the computer says "Add Printer Wizard". Press ENTER. You see an alphabetical list of printer manufacturers. Press the down-arrow key several times, until your printer’s manufacturer is highlighted (white letters on a blue background). Press the TAB key. Press the down-arrow key several times, until your printer’s name is highlighted. Turn the printer on (by flipping its power switch). Press ENTER four times. The computer will make the printer print a page (to prove to you that the printer is working). Press the TAB key several times, until the word "Yes" is highlighted; then press ENTER.
The computer says "Time Zone". The computer can handle dozens of time zones worldwide, such as Pacific Time, Mountain Time, Arizona Time (which is like Mountain Time but without daylight savings), Central Time, Mexico City & Tegucigalpa & Saskatchewan Time (like Central Time but without daylight savings), Eastern Time, and Indiana & Lima & Bogota Time (like Eastern Time but without daylight savings). The computer assumes you’re in the Pacific time zone; if you live elsewhere, press the right-arrow key (or left-arrow) several times, until your time zone is chosen. Press ENTER twice.
Eventually, the screen’s bottom left corner says "Start".
If the computer says "Welcome to Windows 95", do this: while holding down the Alt key, tap the F4 key. If the computer says "Thank You for Purchasing a Quantex!" (because you bought a Quantex computer), do this again: while holding down the Alt key, tap the F4 key.
Position the mouse
Look at the computer’s mouse. The mouse’stail is a cable that runs from the mouse to the computer. The area where the tail meets the mouse is called the mouse’s ass.
The mouse’s underside — its belly — has a hole in it, and a ball in the hole.
Put the mouse on your desk and directly in front of your right arm. Make the mouse lie flat (so its ball rubs against the desk).Make the mouse face you so you don’t see its ass.
Move the arrow
Move the mouse across your desk. As you move the mouse, remember to keep it flat and facing you.
On the screen, you’ll see an arrow, which is called themouse pointer. As you move the mouse, the arrow moves also. If you move the mouse to the left, the arrow moves to the left. If you move the mouse to the right, the arrow moves to the right. If you move the mouse toward you, the arrow moves down. If you move the mouse away from you, the arrow moves up.
Practice moving the arrow by moving the mouse. Remember to keep the mouse facing you at all times.
If you want to move the arrow far and your desk is small, move the mouse until it reaches the desk’s edge; then lift the mouse off the desk, lay the mouse gently on the middle of the desk, and rub the mouse across the desk in the same direction as before.
Click on Start
The most important part of the arrow is its tip, which is called thehot spot. Move the arrow so its hot spot (tip) is in the middle of the word "Start". When you do that, you’re pointing at the word "Start".
On the top of the mouse, you’ll see 2 or 3 rectangular buttons you can press.The main button is the one on the left. Tapping it is called clicking. So to click, tap the left button.
While you’re pointing at the word "Start", click (by tapping the left button). That’s calledclicking "Start".
When you click "Start", you’ll see thisStart menu:
On that Start menu, the bottom choice says "Shut Down".Whenever you finish using Windows 95, click "Shut Down" (by pointing at "Shut Down" and then tapping the left mouse button).
Practice that now! Click "Shut Down".
Then the computer will ask, "Are you sure?" Press the ENTER key.
Wait while the computer tidies up the information on your hard disk.
Finally the computer will say, "It’s now safe to turn off your computer". Turn off the computer.
Make the Start menu appear on the screen.
In that menu, notice that the word "Programs" has the symbol "4 " next to it. That symbol means that if you choose "Programs" from the Start menu, you’ll see another menu.
Try it: point at the word "Programs". You’ll see thisPrograms menu:
The Microsoft Network
If you bought extra programs, the menu mentions them too.
From that menu, choose "Accessories", by pointing at it. You’ll see thisAccessories menu:
System Tools 4
The accessories menu includes a "Calculator". To use the calculator, get the accessories menu onto the screen and then click "Calculator". You’ll see theCalculator window, containing a picture of a pocket calculator.
How to calculate
To compute 42+5, click the calculator’s 4 key (by using the mouse to point at the 4 key and then clicking), then click 2, then +, then 5, then =. The calculator will show the answer, 47.
Instead of using the mouse, you can do that calculation a different way, by using the computer’s keyboard. Try it! On the computer’s keyboard, tap the 4 key, then the 2 key, then (while holding down the SHIFT key) the + key, then 5, then =. The calculator will show 47.
Try fancier calculations, by pressing these calculator buttons:
/ divided by
. decimal point
Standard versus scientific
You can choose two kinds of calculators. Astandard calculator is small and cute: it does just arithmetic. A scientific calculator is big and imposing: it includes extra buttons, so you can do advanced math.
The first time you (or your colleagues) ask for the calculator, the computer shows a standard calculator (small and cute). If you want the calculator to be scientific instead, chooseScientific from the View menu. (To do that, click the word "View", then click the word "Scientific".) Then you’ll see extra buttons, such as these:
PI pi (which is 3.14159265359)
For example, if you click the PI button, the computer will say 3.14159265359. If you click the 7 button and then say "squared" (by pressing the x^2 button), the computer will multiply 7 by itself and say 49 (which is called "7 squared"). If you click the 7 button and then say "cubed" (by pressing the x^3 button), the computer will do "7 times 7 times 7" and say 343 (which is called "7 cubed"). If you click the 7 button and then say "factorial" (by pressing the n! button), the computer will multiply together all the numbers up to 7 (1 times 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 times 6 times 7) and say 5040 (which is called "7 factorial").
The scientific calculator also contains buttons that help you handle big exponents, logarithms, trigonometry, statistics, hexadecimal numbers, and assembly-language programming. I’ll explain the mathematical concepts behind those buttons later, on page 388 (exponents), 389 (logarithms), 402 (trigonometry), 565 (hexadecimal numbers), and 575 (assembly-language programming). If you’re adventurous, just go push buttons and see what happens: no matter which button you press, the computer won’t blow up!
After making the calculator be scientific, you can make it become standard again by choosingStandard from the View menu.
In the Calculator window’s top right corner, a square button has an X on it. That’s called theX button (or the close button). When you finish using the Calculator window, click that button. It closes the Calculator window, so the Calculator window disappears.
When you buy Windows 95, you get a word-processing program free! That word-processing program is calledWordPad. It’s one of the Windows accessories. To use it, get the accessories menu onto the screen and then click "WordPad". You’ll see the WordPad window.
In the window’s top right corner, you see the X button. Next to the X button is theresize button. Clicking the resize button changes the window’s size.
Try clicking the resize button: see the window’s size change! Try clicking the resize button again: see the window’s size change again!
If the window is small, clicking the resize button makes the window become huge so it consumes the whole screen. If the window is huge and consumes the whole screen, clicking the resize button makes the window become small.
If the window consumes the whole screen, the window is said to bemaximized. If the window is smaller, the window is said to be restored to a small size.
Click the resize button if necessary, so that the WordPad window consumes the whole screen(and is maximized).
Now that the WordPad window consumes the whole screen, you can easily do word processing: you can easily type words and sentences. Try it! Type whatever sentences you wish to make up. For example, try typing a memo to your friends, or a story, or a poem. Be creative! Whatever you type is called adocument.
Use the keyboard
The following hints will help you type.…
To capitalize a letter of the alphabet, type that letter while holding down theSHIFT key. (One SHIFT key is next to the Z key; the other SHIFT key is next to the ? key. Each SHIFT key has an up-arrow on it.)
To capitalize a whole passage, tap theCAPS LOCK key, then type the passage. The computer will automatically capitalize the passage as you type it. When you finish typing the passage, tap the CAPS LOCK key again: that tells the computer to stop capitalizing.
If you make a mistake, press theBACKSPACE key. That makes the computer erase the last character you typed. (The BACKSPACE key is in the top right corner of the keyboard’s main section. It’s to the right of the + key, and it has a left-arrow on it.)
To erase the last two characters you typed, press the BACKSPACE key twice.
If you’re typing near the screen’s right edge, and you type a word that’s too long to fit on the screen, the computer will automatically move the word to the line below.
When you finish a paragraph, press theENTER key. That makes the computer move to the line underneath so you can start typing the next paragraph.
If you want to double-space between the paragraphs, press the ENTER key twice.
If you want to indent a line (such as the first line of a paragraph), begin the line by pressing theTAB key. The computer will indent the line a half inch.
To make a phrase toward the right, press the TAB key several times before typing the phrase. To move a phrase down, press the ENTER key several times before typing the phrase.
AltYou can type these alternative symbols:
128 Ç 144 É 160 á 225 ß
129 ü 145 æ 161 í
130 é 146 Æ 162 ó 227 ¶
131 â 147 ô 163 ú
132 ä 148 ö 164 ñ 230 µ
133 à 149 ò 165 Ñ
134 å 150 û 166 ª 241 ±
135 ç 151 ù 167 º
136 ê 152 ÿ 168 ¿ 246 ÷
137 ë 153 Ö
138 è 154 Ü 170 ¬ 248 °
139 ï 155 ¢ 171 ½ 249 •
140 î 156 £ 172 ¼ 250 ·
141 ì 157 ¥ 173 ¡
142 Ä 158 P 174 «
143 Å 159 ƒ 175 » 253 ²
For example, here’s how to type the symbol ñ, whose code number is 164. Hold down the Alt key; and while you keep holding down the Alt key, type 164 by using the numeric keypad (the number keys on the far right side of the keyboard). When you finish typing 164, lift your finger from the Alt key, and you’ll see ñ on your screen! Try it!
Windows copied that chart from DOS. But Windows goes beyond DOS by letting you also use this fancier chart:
0192 À 0224 à
0161 ¡ 0193 Á 0225 á
0130 ‚ 0162 ¢ 0194 Â 0226 â
0131 ƒ 0163 £ 0195 Ã 0227 ã
0132 „ 0164 ¤ 0196 Ä 0228 ä
0133 … 0165 ¥ 0197 Å 0229 å
0134 † 0166 ¦ 0198 Æ 0230 æ
0135 ‡ 0167 § 0199 Ç 0231 ç
0136 ˆ 0168 ¨ 0200 È 0232 è
0137 ‰ 0169 © 0201 É 0233 é
0138 Š 0170 ª 0202 Ê 0234 ê
0139 ‹ 0171 « 0203 Ë 0235 ë
0140 Œ 0172 ¬ 0204 Ì 0236 ì
0173 0205 Í 0237 í
0174 ® 0206 Î 0238 î
0175 ¯ 0207 Ï 0239 ï
0176 ° 0208 Ð 0240 ð
0145 Ÿ 0177 ± 0209 Ñ 0241 ñ
0146 ’ 0178 ² 0210 Ò 0242 ò
0147 ¡ 0179 ³ 0211 Ó 0243 ó
0148 " 0180 ´ 0212 Ô 0244 ô
0149 • 0181 µ 0213 Õ 0245 õ
0150 – 0182 ¶ 0214 Ö 0246 ö
0151 — 0183 · 0215 × 0247 ÷
0152 ˜ 0184 ¸ 0216 Ø 0248 ø
0153 ™ 0185 ¹ 0217 Ù 0249 ù
0154 š 0186 º 0218 Ú 0250 ú
0155 › 0187 » 0219 Û 0251 û
0156 œ 0188 ¼ 0220 Ü 0252 ü
0189 ½ 0221 Ý 0253 ý
0190 ¾ 0222 Þ 0254 þ
0159 Ÿ 0191 ¿ 0223 ß 0255 ÿ
For example, here’s how to type the symbol ã, whose code number is 0227: while holding down the Alt key, type 0227 on the numeric keypad.
If your document contains too many lines to fit on the screen, the screen will show just part of the document, accompanied by two arrows at the screen’s right edge: ascroll-up arrow (5 ) and a scroll-down arrow (6 ).
To see a higher part of your document, click the scroll-up arrow (5 ).
To see a lower part of your document, click the scroll-down arrow (6 ).
To insert extra characters anywhere in your document, click where you want the extra characters to appear (by moving the mouse’s pointer there and then pressing the mouse’s button). Then type the extra characters.
For example, suppose you typed the word "fat" and want to change it to "fault". Click between the "a" and the "t", then type "ul".
(When you’re using Windows, notice that you click between letters, not on letters.)
As you type the extra characters, the screen’s other characters move out of the way to make room for the extra characters.
While you’re inserting the extra characters, you can erase nearby mistakes by pressing the BACKSPACE key or DELETE key. The BACKSPACE key erases the character that’s before the mouse’s pointer. The DELETE key erases the character that’s after the mouse’s pointer.
Split a paragraph
Here’s how to split a long paragraph in half, to form two short paragraphs.
Decide which word should begin the second short paragraph. Click the left edge of that word’s first letter.
Press the BACKSPACE key (to erase the space before that word), then press the ENTER key. Now you’ve split the long paragraph in two!
If you want to double-space between the two short paragraphs, press the ENTER key again. If you want to indent the second paragraph, press the TAB key.
After typing two paragraphs, here’s how to combine them, to form a single paragraph that’s longer.
Click at the end of the first paragraph. Press the DELETE key several times, to delete unwanted ENTERs and TABs. Now you’ve combined the two paragraphs into one!
Then press the SPACE bar (to insert a space between the two sentences).
To move to different parts of your document, you can use your mouse. To move faster, press these keys instead:
Key you pressWhere pointer moves
right-arrow right to the next character
left-arrow left to the previous character
down-arrow down to the line below
up-arrow up to the line above
END right to the end of the line
HOME left to beginning of the line
PAGE DOWN down to the next screenful
PAGE UP up to the previous screenful
Here’s what happens if you press the movement keys while holding down the Ctrl key:
Keys you pressWhere the pointer will move
Ctrl with right-arrow right (to the next word or punctuation symbol)
Ctrl with left-arrow left (to the beginning of a word or punctuation)
Ctrl with down-arrow down to the next paragraph
Ctrl with up-arrow up to the beginning of a paragraph
Ctrl with PAGE DOWN down to the last word on the screen
Ctrl with PAGE UP up to the first word on the screen
Ctrl with END down to the end of the document
Ctrl with HOME up to the beginning of the document
Near the top of the screen, you see these buttons:
Here is each button’s name:
If you forget a button’s name, try this trick: point at the button (by using the mouse but without clicking), then wait a second. Underneath the button, you’ll see the button’s name; and at the screen’s bottom left corner, you’ll see a short explanation of what the button does.
To use a button, press it by clicking it with the mouse. Here are the details.…
UnderlineHere’s how to underline a phrase (like this). Push in the Underline button (which says U on it) by clicking it. Then type the phrase you want underlined. Then pop the Underline button back out (by clicking it again).
BoldHere’s how to make a phrase be bold (like this). Push in the Bold button (which says B on it) by clicking it. Then type the phrase you want emboldened. Then pop the Bold button back out (by clicking it again).
Here’s how to make a phrase be bold and underlined (like this). Push in the Bold and Underline buttons (by clicking them both). Then type the phrase. Then pop those buttons back out (by clicking them again).
ItalicHere’s how to italicize a phrase (like this). Push in the Italic button (which says I on it) by clicking it. Then type the phrase you want italicized. Then pop the Italic button back out (by clicking it again).
ColorHere’s how to change a phrase’s color. Click the Color button. You’ll see a list of 15 colors (plus "White" and "Automatic"). Click the color you want. Then type the phrase you want colorized. Then click the Color button again and click "Black".
AlignmentWhile typing a line, you can click one of these alignment buttons: Center, Align Left, or Align Right.
Clicking theCenter button makes the line be centered,
like this line
Clicking theAlign Right button makes the line be at the right margin,
like this line
Clicking theAlign Left button makes the line be at the left margin,
like this line
Clicking one of those buttons affects not just the line you’re typing but also all other lines in the same paragraph. When you click one of those buttons, you’re pushing the button in; that button pops back out when you push a different alignment button instead.
When you start typing a new document, the computer assumes you want the document to be aligned left, so the computer pushes the Align Left button in. If you want a different alignment, push a different alignment button instead.
Clicking an alignment button affects the entire paragraph you’re typing, but the paragraphs you typed earlier remain unaffected. To change the alignment of a paragraph you typed earlier, click in the middle of that paragraph and then click the alignment button you wish.
When you start typing a new paragraph, the computer gives the new paragraph the same alignment as the paragraph above, unless you say differently (by pressing one of the alignment buttons).
Here’s how to create a centered title. Press the ENTER key twice (to leave a big blank space above the title). Then press the Center button (so the title will be centered) and the Bold button (so the title will be bold), type the words you want to be in the title, and press the ENTER key afterwards. Congratulations: you’ve created a centered title! Next, make the paragraph underneath the title be normal: make that paragraph be uncentered (click the Align Left button) and make it be unbolded (click the Bold button, so the Bold button pops back out).
BulletsWhile you’re typing a paragraph, you can push in the Bullets button (by clicking it). That makes the computer indent the entire paragraph and also put a bullet (the symbol · ) to the left of the paragraph’s first line. That’s called a bulleted paragraph.
After you’ve typed a bulleted paragraph, any new paragraphs you type underneath will be bulleted also — until you request an unbulleted paragraph (by popping the Bullet button back out).
Left of the Bold button, the screen also shows a box containing the number 10. That’s called theFont Size box. The 10 in it means the characters you’re typing are 10 points high.
If you change that number to 20, the characters will be twice as high (and also twice as wide). To change the number to 20, click in the Font Size box, then type 20 and press ENTER. Try it! Afterwards, whatever characters you type will be 20 points high. (The characters you typed earlier remain unaffected.)
You can make the font size be 10 or 20 or any other size you like. For best results, pick a number from 8 to 72. (If you pick a number smaller than 8 or bigger than 72, the result is ugly.) The number can end in .5; for example, you can pick 8 or 8.5 or 9 or 9.5 or 10.
At the screen’s left edge, you see a box saying "Times New Roman". That’s called theFont box. Next to that box is the symbol 6 ; click it.
You’ll see theFont menu, which is a list of fonts in alphabetical order. (To see the rest of the list, press the up-arrow or down-arrow keys.)
Click whichever font you want. To avoid hassles, choose a font that has a "TT" in front of it. (The "TT" means its aTrue Type font. For most purposes the best fonts are:
TT Times New Roman (which is the best for most paragraphs and looks like this)
TT Arial (which is the best for most headlines & footnotes and looks like this)
TT Courier New (which is the best for tables of numbers)
Here’s how to delete the entire document, so you can start over. While holding down the Ctrl key, press the A key (which means "all"). All of the document turns black. Then press the DELETE key. All of the document disappears, so you can start over!
Here’s how to change a phrase you typed previously.
Point at the phrase’s beginning. Then hold down the mouse’s left button; and while you keep holding down that button, move to the phrase’s end.
(Moving the mouse while holding down the left button is calleddragging. You’re dragging from the phrase’s beginning to the phrase’s end.)
The phrase that you dragged across turns black. Turning the phrase black is calledselecting the phrase.
Then say what to do to the phrase. For example, choose one of these activities:
To underline the phrase, push in the Underline button.
To make the phrase be bold, push in the Bold button.
To italicize the phrase, push in the Italic button.
To prevent the phrase from being underlined, bold, or italicized, pop those buttons back out.
To change how the phrase’s paragraphs are aligned, click one of the alignment buttons.
To change the phrase’s point size, click the Font Size box then type the size and press ENTER.
To change the phrase’s font, choose the font you want from the Font menu.
To delete the phrase, press the DELETE key.
To replace the phrase, just type whatever words you want the phrase to become.
To move a phrase to a new location, just "select the phrase, and then drag from the phrase’s middle to the new location." Here are the details:
First, select the phrase you want to move, so the phrase turns black. Then take your finger off the mouse’s button. Move the mouse’s pointer to the phrase’s middle (so you see an arrow). Finally, hold down the mouse’s button; and while you keep holding down the mouse’s button, drag to wherever you want the phrase to move. (Drag anywhere you wish in the document, or drag to the end of the document, but don’t try to drag past the document’s end.) At the end of the drag, lift your finger from the mouse’s button; then the phrase moves where you wished!
Near the screen’s top left corner, you see these extra buttons:
Here’s how to use them.…
SaveHere’s how to save the document (copy it onto the hard disk). Click the Save button. Then invent a name for the document. The name can be short (such as "Joe") or long (such as "Stupidest Memo of 1997"). At the end of the name, press the ENTER key. Then the computer will copy the document onto the disk.
If you change your mind afterwards, edit the document some more: when you finish that editing, save it by clicking the Save button again. If you’re typing a long document, click the Save button about every 10 minutes, so that if an accident happens you’ll lose at most 10 minutes of work.
Print PreviewIf you’re wondering what a page will look like but don’t want to waste a sheet of paper to find out, click the Print Preview button. The computer will show you a mock-up of what the entire page will look like: you’ll see the entire page, shrunk to fit on the screen, so the characters on the page appear very tiny. Those characters are too tiny to read, but you’ll see the page’s overall appearance: how much of the page is filled up, which parts of the page are blank, and whether the info on the page is centered. When you finish admiring that mock-up, click the word "Close".
FinishingWhen you finish working on a document, you can click the New button or the Open button. If you click the New button and then press ENTER, the computer will let you start typing a new document. If instead you click the Open button, the computer will show you a list of the documents you saved earlier; click the document you want, then press ENTER, which makes the computer put the document onto the screen and let you edit it.
When you finish using WordPad, click the X button(at the screen’s top right corner). That closes the WordPad window, so the WordPad window disappears.
Before the computer obeys the New button, Open button, or X button, the computer checks whether you saved your document. If you didn’t save your document, the computer asks, "Save changes?" If you click "Yes", the computer copies your document’s most recent version to the hard disk; if you click "No" instead, the computer ignores and forgets your most recent editing.
To paint pictures, get the accessories menu onto the screen and the click "Paint". You’ll see thePaint window.
Make sure the Paint window consumes the whole screen.(If it doesn’t consume the whole screen yet, maximize the window by clicking the resize button, which is next to the X button.)
Move the mouse pointer to the screen’s middle. Then drag (move the mouse while holding down the mouse’s left button). As you drag, you’ll be drawing a squiggle.
For example, try drawing a smile. To do that, put the mouse pointer where you want the smile to begin (at the smile’s top left corner), then depress the mouse’s left button while you draw the smile. When you finish drawing the smile, lift the mouse’s button. Then draw the rest of the face!
When you draw, you’re normally drawing in black. At the screen’s bottom, you see 28 colors: red, yellow, green, etc. To draw in one of those colors instead of in black, click the color you want.
Near the screen’s top left corner, you see these buttons:
Free-Form Select Select
Eraser Fill With Color
Pick Color Magnifier
Ellipse Rounded Rectangle
To use a button, push it in by clicking it. When you start using Paint, the computer assumes you want to use the Pencil, so it pushes thePencil button in. If you want to use a different tool, click a different button instead. Here are the most popular choices.…
To draw a fatter squiggle, click theBrush button. Then put the mouse pointer in the screen’s middle, where you want the squiggle to begin, and drag! Try it now!
To draw a line that’s perfectly straight, click theLine button. Then put the mouse pointer where you want the line to begin, and drag to where you want the line to end. Try it now!
To draw a rectangle whose sides are perfectly straight, click theRectangle button. Then put the mouse pointer where you want the rectangle’s top left corner to be, and drag to where you want the rectangle’s opposite corner.
To vandalize your drawing by using a can of spray paint, click theAirbrush button. Then put the mouse pointer where you want to begin spraying, and drag!
To erase a mistake, click theEraser button. Then drag across the part of your drawing you want to erase. The part you drag across will become white.
While holding down the Ctrl key, you can tap the S, P, N, or O key. Here are the details.…
Tosave your painting (copy it onto the hard disk), press Ctrl with S. Then type whatever name you want the painting to have, and press ENTER. Afterwards, if you edit your document further, save that editing by pressing Ctrl with S again.
Toprint your painting onto paper, press Ctrl with P. Then press ENTER. If your printer can’t print colors, it will substitute shades of gray.
To start working on anew painting, press Ctrl with N.
Toopen a painting (use a painting that you saved earlier), press Ctrl with the letter O. The computer will show you a list of the paintings you saved earler; click the painting you want, then press ENTER, which makes the computer put the painting onto the screen and let you edit it.
When you finish using Paint, click the X button (at the screen’s top right corner). That closes the Paint window, so the Paint window disappears.
Did you save?
Before the computer obeys Ctrl N, Ctrl O, or the X button, the computer checks whether you saved your painting. If you didn’t save your painting, the computer asks, "Save changes?" If you click "Yes", the computer copies your painting’s most recent version to the hard disk; if you click "No" instead, the computer ignores and forgets your most recent drawing efforts.
While you’re using Windows 95, the screen’s bottom right corner is a box that shows the time, like this:
If you move the mouse’s arrow there, the date will flash on the screen briefly.
To get more details about the time and date,double-click that time box. To double-click the box, move the arrow to the box, then tap the mouse’s left button twice quickly, so the taps are less than .4 seconds apart.
While tapping the left button twice, make sure the mouse remains still. Don’t let the mouse jiggle, not even a smidgin! While double-clicking, your desk should be like Christmas Eve, where "not a creature is stirring, not even a mouse".
Double-clicking is also calledopening. Double-clicking the time box is called "opening the time box".
Double-clicking the time box makes the computer show you a calendar for the entire month, with today’s date highlighted in blue. You’ll also see the face of a traditional clock, with an hour hand, minute hand, and second hand that all move. You’ll see the time zone, such as "Eastern Daylight Time".
If the calendar, clock, or time zone are wrong, here’s how to reset them.
To change the year, click the 5 (or 6 ) symbol that’s next to the year. To change the month, click the 6 symbol that’s next to the month, then click the correct month. To change the date, click the correct date.
To change the time, click the part of the time that you want to change (the hours, minutes, seconds, or AM/PM), then click the 5 or 6 symbol nearby. To change the time zone, click "Time Zone", then press the keyboard’s right-arrow key (or left-arrow key) several times, until your time zone is chosen, then click "Date & Time". To see immediately the results of changing the time or the time zone, click "Apply".
When you finish using that clock/calendar window, click "OK".
When you’re using Windows 95, the screen’s top left corner usually shows anicon (little picture) entitled "My Computer".
Right-click My Computer
To discover secrets about your computer,right-click the "My Computer" icon. (That means click it by using the rightmost button instead of the left button.)
You’ll see ashortcut menu. The menu’s bottom choice is "Properties". Click the word "Properties" (by using the left mouse button).
You’ll see a message about your computer’s properties. For example, on one of my computers the message says —
Microsoft Windows 95
The Secret Guide to Computers
Quantex Microsystems, Inc.
That means I’m using just Windows 95 (not Windows 97), I’m using version 4.00.950a (which came out in January 1996 and is better than version 4.00.950, which came out in August 1995), the computer is registered to me & my company, the computer was manufactured by Quantex Microsystems, the computer’s CPU chip is a Pentium (which is a registered trademark of Intel), and the computer contains 16 megabytes of RAM chips.
What message does your computer show? When you finish admiring the message, click "OK".
Double-click My Computer
To see different secrets about your computer, double-click the My Computer icon. You’ll see theMy Computer window.
That window contains an icon for each disk drive. For example, if your computer has a floppy drive called "A:", a hard drive called "C:", and a CD-ROM drive called "D:", you’ll see a "Floppy A:" icon, a "C:" icon, and a "D:" icon.
The window also contains a Control Panel icon and a Printers icon.
Manipulate your hard disk
To find out about your hard disk, click the "C:" icon, which is in the My Computer window. The window’s bottom right corner will tell you how many of the disk’s megabytes remain unused.
To find out more about your hard disk, right-click the "C:" icon (so you see a shortcut menu), then choose "Properties" from that menu (by clicking "Properties"). You’ll see a pie chart showing the disk’s total capacity, how much of it is used up, and how much of it is still unused (free). When you finish admiring that chart, click "OK".
If you double-click the "C:" icon, you’ll see theC window, which lists files that are on the hard disk. Make sure the C window consumes the whole screen. (If it doesn’t consume the whole screen yet, maximize the C window by clicking the resize button, which is next to the X button.) If the hard disk contains more files than can fit on the screen, view the remaining files by pressing the 6 and 5 buttons, which are at the screen’s right edge.
For each file, you see the file’s name and a tiny picture (icon) representing the file.
If the file’s a document, its icon looks like a notepad (or else a page whose top right corner is bent).
If the file’s a program, its icon looks like a window.
If the file’s a folder containing other files, its icon looks like a yellow manila folder.
If you double-click that icon, a new window shows you what files are in the folder.
(When you finish admiring the new window, close it by clicking its X button.)
If the file’s a document or program, and you click its icon, the screen’s bottom will show you how many bytes are in the file. Double-clicking a program’s icon will make the computer try to run the program; don’t do that unless you’ve read instructions about how to run the program successfully! Double-clicking a document’s icon will make the computer try to use that document: the computer will try to run the program that created the document, but sometimes the computer can’t correctly deduce which program created the document.
View menuWhile you’re viewing icons, you can change their appearance by clicking the word "View", which gives a View menu. From that menu, choose either Large Icons (to make the icons as large & lovely as when you bought the computer), Small Icons (to make the icons small, so you fit more of them on the screen), List (to make the icons small and organized so you begin by reading down the left column), or Details (to make each icon small and accompanied by a comment showing the file’s size and the date when the file was last modified). Usually you’ll be happiest if you choose "List".
New folderTo create a new folder, click "File" (which is at the screen’s top left corner), so you see the File menu. From that menu, choose "New", then click "Folder".
A new folder will appear. Type a name for it (and press ENTER).
Close the C windowWhen you finish examining the files that are on hard disk C, close the C window by clicking its X button.
Manipulate your floppy disks
To analyze a floppy disk that contains info, put the floppy disk into drive A. Then double-click the "Floppy A:" icon, which is in the My Computer Window. You’ll see theA window, which lists the files that are on the floppy disk.
Make sure the A window consumes the whole screen. (If it doesn’t consume the whole screen yet, maximize the A window by clicking the resize button, which is next to the X button.)
If the floppy disk contains more files than can fit on the screen, view the remaining files by pressing the 6 and 5 buttons, which are at the screen’s right edge.
For each file, you see the file’s name and an icon representing the file. When you finish examining them, close the A window by clicking its X button.
Format a floppy diskIf you buy a new floppy disk that doesn’t contain any info yet, that disk must be formatted. Probably the disk’s been formatted for you by the disk’s manufacturer; but if the disk hasn’t been formatted yet, you must format it yourself. Warning: formatting a disk erases any info that was on the disk.
To format a floppy disk, put the disk into drive A. In the My Computer window, right-click the "Floppy A:" icon. Left-click "Format", then "Start", then "Close", then "Close" again.
Duplicate a floppy diskIf you have a 3½-inch 1.44M floppy disk that contains info, and you have a 3½-inch 1.44M floppy disk that’s blank, here’s how to copy all info from the first disk to the second so the second becomes an exact duplicate of the first.
Put the first disk (which contains info) into drive A. In the My Computer window, right-click the "Floppy A:" icon. Click "Copy Disk" and press ENTER. When the computer tells you, put the blank disk into drive A (after removing the other disk) and press ENTER. The computer will say "Copy completed successfully". Click "Close".
When you finish using the My Computer window, close it by clicking its X button.
File’s shortcut menu
When you turn on the computer, Windows 95 makes the screen show the Start button, the My Computer icon, the Recycle Bin icon, and several other icons. For example, if you’ve created documents by using WordPad or Paint, the screen shows icons for those documents (unless your computer was set up in an unusual way).
If you’re interested in a file, make that file’s icon appear on the screen. If the file’s a document created by WordPad or Paint, its icon is probably on the screen already. If the file you’re interested in does not have an icon on the screen yet, make the icon appear by double-clicking the My Computer Icon, then double-clicking the "C:" icon (if the file’s on the hard disk) or the "Floppy A:" icon (if the file’s on a floppy disk in drive A). If the file’s in a folder, make the file’s icon appear by double-clicking the folder’s icon.
Once the file’s icon is on the screen, right-click on the file’s icon. You’ll see the file’s shortcut menu, which offers these choices:
(For some kinds of files, the shortcut menu offers extra choices also.)
Here’s what each choice means.…
If you choose "Properties", the computer tells you the file’s name, the folder it’s in, the file’s size, the file’s MS-DOS name, the date when the file was last modified, the date when the file was last used (accessed), and other info about the file. When you finish admiring that info, click "OK".
If you choose "Rename", the computer lets you change the file’s name. Type a new name (and press ENTER).
If you choose "Open", the computer opens the file, so it does the same thing as if you double-clicked the file’s icon:
If the file’s a folder, the computer opens the folder and shows what’s inside.
If the file’s a program, the computer runs the program.
If the file’s a document, the computer uses the document
(by running the program that created the document).
If you choose "Send To" and the file’s on the hard disk, the computer lets you send a copy of the file to a floppy disk. After choosing "Send To", put the floppy disk into drive A. Then click the "Floppy A:" icon.
Exception: on some computers (such as the one I bought from Quantex), "Floppy A:" is not one of the choices. To fix that error and make "Floppy A:" become one of the choices, do this:
Close all windows (by clicking their X buttons). Double-click the My Computer icon, then the "C:" icon, then the Windows icon, then the SendTo icon. From the File menu, choose New, then Shortcut. Put a floppy disk into drive A. On the keyboard, type "a:" (and then press the ENTER key twice). Close all windows (by clicking their X buttons).
If you choose "Copy", the computer lets you copy the file anywhere you wish!
After choosing "Copy", right-click where you want the copy of the file to appear. For example, you can:
right-click on a blank place next to the file (so the copy’s icon will appear next to the original’s icon),
or right-click on a folder’s icon (so the copy will be inserted into that folder),
or open a new window & right-click on a blank place in that window,
or right-click on a blank place that’s not in any window.
Then click "Paste". The copy will appear.
Each copy takes up space on the disk. For example, if the original file is 1 megabyte long, the copy will be 1 megabyte long also, so the original file plus its copy will consume a total of 2 megabytes.
Paste ShortcutIf you click "Paste Shortcut" instead of "Paste", the copy will not consume a megabyte; it will consume just a few bytes telling the computer to refer to the original file for details. In that case, the copy is called a shortcut. The shortcut’s icon has a bent arrow on it, to emphasize that the shortcut just points back to the original file.
If a file’s icon is hard to get to (because the file’s in a folder that’s in another folder that’s in another folder), create a shortcut to it by doing this:
Right-click the file’s icon, then choose "Copy", then close all windows (by clicking their X boxes).
Right-click on a blank place in the middle of the screen, then click "Paste Shortcut". A shortcut to the file’s icon will appear where you clicked.
To access the file, just double-click the shortcut’s icon.
Copy from floppy disk to hard diskHere’s how to copy a file from a floppy disk to your hard disk.
Put the floppy disk into drive A. In the My Computer window, double-click the "3½ Floppy (A:)" icon. Right-click the icon of the file you want to copy. Click "Copy".
Close the "Floppy A:" window (by clicking its X box). Double-click the "C:" icon.
Which of the hard disk’s folders do you want to copy the file to? Either right-click that folder’s icon, or right-click on a blank place in that folder’s window.
Then click "Paste".
If you choose "Cut", the computer lets you make the file vanish from its current location and reappear in a new location. After choosing "Cut", right-click at the place where you want the file to reappear, then click "Paste".
Here’s how to delete a file: click its icon, then press the DELETE key, then the ENTER key.
Go ahead: try that procedure! To be safe, delete a file that’s unimportant, such as a short, junky document you created by using WordPad or Paint.
If you use that procedure to delete a file from a floppy disk, the computer deletes the file immediately. But if you try to delete a file from the hard disk instead, the computer does not delete the file immediately; instead, the computer moves the file to theRecycle Bin, which holds hard-disk files you said to delete.
Peek in the Recycle Bin
To discover what’s in the Recycle Bin, double-click theRecycle Bin icon. (It’s at the screen’s left edge.) You’ll see the Recycle Bin window, which shows a list of files you said to delete. (If you don’t see a file list, the Recycle Bin is empty.)
To see lots of info about the files in the Recycle Bin, make sure the Recycle Bin window is maximized (so it consumes the whole screen), and make sure you’re seeing the Details view (by clicking "View" then "Details").
To see even more details about a certain file, right-click the file’s icon and then click "Properties". When you finish admiring the details, click "OK".
Restore or delete?If you change your mind and do not want to delete a certain file, right-click the file’s icon and then click "Restore". That makes the computer pull the file out of the Recycle Bin and put the file back to its original location on the hard disk.
If, on the other hand, you really do want to delete a certain file, click the file’s icon and then press the DELETE key; then press ENTER. The file will disappear.
To delete all files from the Recycle Bin, click "File" and then "Empty Recycle Bin"; then press the ENTER key. Everything in the Recycle Bin will disappear.
CloseWhen you finish admiring the Recycle Bin window, click its X box.
Avoid the Recycle Bin
You’ve learned that to delete a file, the usual procedure is to click the file’s icon, then tap the DELETE key, then tap the ENTER key. If the file was on the hard disk, that procedure moves the file into the Recycle Bin.
Notice that the procedure involves tapping the DELETE key. If, while you’re tapping the DELETE key, you hold down the SHIFT key, the computer deletes the file immediately instead of moving it to the Recycle Bin.
These tricks will make you a pro.
To improve the way your computer acts do this: double-click the My Computer icon, then right-click the "C:" icon, then click "Properties", then click "Tools".
ScanDiskTo make sure your hard disk contains no errors, click "Check Now".
Then click either "Standard" or "Thorough". If you click "Standard", the computer will give your hard disk a standard checkup, which takes about 20 seconds. If you click "Thorough", the computer will give your hard disk a more thorough checkup, which takes about 20 minutes. (Those times are just approximate. The exact times depend on how fast your computer & hard drive are and how much info’s on your hard disk.)
After clicking "Standard" or "Thorough", press ENTER. The computer will check your drive for errors, by using a program calledScanDisk.
If the computer says "ScanDisk found data in lost file fragments", click "Discard" and then "OK".
When the computer finishes checking your drive, it will say "ScanDisk Results". (If you’re lucky and there are no errors, the computer will also say "ScanDisk did not find any errors on this drive.") The computer will also tell you how many bytes are on the disk. When you finish reading those messages, press ENTER twice.
DefragTo make your hard disk run faster, click "Defragment Now". If the computer gives you a choice between "Start", "Select Drive", "Advanced", and "Exit", click "Start".
That makes the computer rearrange the info on your hard disk to let the computer access it faster. For example, if one of your hard disk’s files isfragmented (split into several fragments that are scattered across the disk), the computer will try to defragment (defrag) the file to make it consist of a single big chunk that the computer can access faster.
When the computer finishes rearranging your hard disk’s files, the computer will say "Defragmentation of drive C is complete." Press ENTER.
CloseWhen you finish using the system tools, close the window by clicking its X box. Then close the My Computer window by clicking its X box also.
When you click the Start button (at the screen’s bottom right corner), you see the Start menu:
You’ve already learned about "Programs" and "Shut Down". Let’s examine the other choices.
DocumentsIf you choose "Documents", the computer shows you the Document menu, which is a list of the last 15 documents you used. (If your computer is new and you haven’t used 15 documents yet, the list is shorter.) The list is in alphabetical order.
To use one of those documents, click it. Then the computer runs the program that created the document, and the computer lets you use the document. When you finish using the document, close its window (by clicking its X box).
Suppose you delete one of those 15 documents (by double-clicking My Computer, then double-clicking "C:", then clicking the document’s icon, then pressing the DELETE key). Even though you’ve deleted the document, it remains mentioned in the Document menu. So although the Document menu lists the last 15 documents you mentioned, those 15 documents don’t necessarily still exist!
FindTo use a file that’s on your hard disk, the traditional method is to double-click the My Computer icon, then double-click the "C:", then double-click any folders that the file is in (until the file’s icon appears), then double-click the file’s icon. To use that procedure, you must double-click many times (especially if the file is buried in a folder that’s in another folder that’s in other folders), and that procedure works just if you already know which folders the file is in. Such hunting for your buried treasure can be hard work!
Here’s a faster way to unearth the file.…
From the Start menu, choose "Find". Then click "Files or Folders". You’ll see theFind Files window.
Then type the file’s name — or whatever part of the name you can remember. For example, if you want to search for a file that might be called "Lovers" or "My Love" or "To My Lovely", just type "Love". At the end of your typing, press ENTER.
The computer will search your entire hard drive for any files having that name. It will show you a list of all such files. To see the list fully, maximize the Find Files window by clicking its resize button (which is next to the X button), so the window consumes the whole screen.
If no file in that list interests you, close the window by clicking the X box.
If one of those files does interest you, double-click it. Then the computer will start using it.
If the file’s a program, the computer will run the program. If the file’s a document, the computer will run the program that created it. If the file’s a folder, the computer will show you what’s in the folder.
RunHere’s a faster way to tell the computer to run WordPad: from the Start menu, choose "Run"; then type "wordpad" and press ENTER.
To run Paint instead of WordPad, type "mspaint" instead of "wordpad". To run the Calculator, type "calc" instead.
When you buy a program. It typically comes on a floppy disk. The instructions for copying it onto your hard disk might say to run a program called "install" or "setup". To obey such instructions, put the floppy disk into drive A, then choose "Run" from the Start menu, then type "a:install" or "a:setup" (whichever they told you to type) and press ENTER.
SettingsTo change the way your computer acts, do this: from the Start menu, choose "Settings", then click "Control Panel". You’ll see the Control Panel window, which contains these 18 icons: Accessibility Options, Add New Hardware, Add/Remove Programs, Date/Time, Display, Fonts, Keyboard, Mail and Fax, Microsoft Mail Postoffice, Modems, Mouse, Multimedia, Network, Passwords, Printers, Regional Settings, Sounds, and System. (If your computer is fancy, you’ll also see Internet and Joystick icons.)
For your first experiment, double-click theMouse icon. You’ll see the Mouse Properties window. To modify the mouse’s motion, click "Motion". Then if you put a a in the "Show pointer trails" box (by clicking it), you’ll see a trail of mouse pointers whenever you move the mouse. To lengthen the trail and make it more obvious, drag the slider toward the right, to the "Long" position.
The long trail helps you notice the mouse pointer more easily. It’s useful when you’re giving a presentation to a group of people and want to make sure they always notice where the mouse is moving. It’s also useful if you’re on a laptop computer whose screen is "passive matrix", which is too slow to show mouse motions well.
If you change your mind, stop the trails by clicking the "Show pointer trails" box again, so the check mark disappears.
When you finish experimenting with pointer trails, close the Mouse Properties window by clicking "OK".
You can experiment by double-clicking any of the other icons in the Control Panel window, but be careful! If you tell the computer to use hardware you don’t own, Windows 95 will stop working! Before changing a setting, make a note to yourself of what the setting was, so you can get back to it! Be especially cautious about playing with the Display icon, since if you make a wrong choice your screen will be unreadable!
When you finish playing with the Control Panel window, close it by clicking its X box.
HelpFor further help in learning how to use Windows 95, choose "Help" from the Start menu. Then click either "Contents" or "Index".
If you choose "Contents", the computer shows a list of the major topics. Double-click the topic you want help about. (If you then see a list of subtopics, double-click the subtopic you want help about.)
If you choose "Index", the computer tries to show an alphabetical index of all Windows 95 topics. You see just the index’s beginning; to see the index section about the topic you wish, type the first few letters of the topic’s name. When you see your desired topic, double-click it.
When you finish using help, close the help window by clicking its X box. (If you don’t see an X box, click "Exit" and then click "Exit Tour".)
Play a music CD
Up until 1980, music came on records or tapes. Nowadays, music comes on compact discs instead. If you’ve gone to a music store and bought a compact disc containing music, you can shove that disk into your computer’s CD-ROM drive while Windows 95 is running. The computer will play the compact disc as background music, while you continue your work.
VolumeTo adjust the music’s volume, turn the volume knob, which is typically on the front of the right speaker. (For some old systems, the volume knob is on the computer’s back wall instead, below where the speaker’s cable enters the computer.)
On some systems, the screen’s bottom right corner shows aVolume icon (which looks like a blaring loudspeaker and is next to the time). If you click that icon, you’ll see a slider. Using the mouse, drag the slider up (to raise the volume) or down (to lower it).
CD Player buttonWhile the music plays, a CD Player button appears at the screen’s bottom next to the Start button. On that button, you see which track (song) you’re playing and how many minutes & seconds of that track have elapsed.
To control the music, click the CD Player button. You’ll see theCD Player window. In that window, click the º button to pause in the middle of a song, n to stop back at the beginning of track 1, to resume playing, ³ to skip ahead to the next track, ³ to hop back to the beginning of the current track. Press the button awhile to go fast-forward, to reverse. Click to eject the disk from the drive (so you can insert a different disk instead). When you tire of listening to your CD collection, click eject ( ) and click the window’s X button.
A traditional keyboard contains 101 keys. If your keyboard is designed especially for Windows 95, it contains 3 extra keys near the SPACE bar, so you get 104 keys altogether.
Two of those extra keys are theWindows keys: each shows a flying window. If you press either of the Windows keys, the Start menu appears. So pressing either of those keys has the same effect as if your mouse clicked the Start button. You can press either of the Windows keys: those two keys serve the same purpose as each other, except that one is nearer your left hand, the other is nearer your right. Your keyboard has two SHIFT keys, two Ctrl keys, two Alt keys, and two Windows keys.
The other extra key, called themenu key, shows an arrow pointing at a menu. If you press the menu key, a shortcut menu appears. For example, if you click an icon and then press the menu key, that icon’s shortcut menu appears.
Property windowHere are four ways to make an icon’s property window appear.…
Right-click method: right-click the icon (so the icon’s shortcut menu appears), then click "Properties"
Menu-key method: click the icon, press the menu key (so the icon’s shortcut menu appears), then either
click "Properties" or press the R key (which is the code for "Properties")
Alt-double method: while holding down the Alt key, double-click the icon
Alt-enter method: click the icon; then while holding down the Alt key, tap the ENTER key
Use whichever method you wish! My favorites are the right-click method (which feels the most natural) and the Alt-double method (which is usually the fastest).
Alt F4Try this experiment: while holding down the Alt key, tap the F4 key.
If a window is open, that makes the computer click the window’s X box, so the window closes. (If two windows are open, here’s how to close both: while holding down the Alt key, tap the F4 key twice. If several windows are open, here’s how to close them all: while holding down the Alt and SHIFT keys, tap the F4 key.)
If no windows are open, Alt with F4 makes the computer choose Shut Down from the Start menu.
Problem: someday your mouse stops working (because the mouse is broken or the computer gets too confused to handle the mouse). To get out of that mess, press Alt F4 several times (to close your windows and shut down the computer). Then try again to turn the computer on.
While using Windows 95, you can giveMS-DOS commands. Details are on pages 114-149.
Windows 95 includes commands to control yourmodem (page 207) and send a fax (page 221).
To make Windows 95 run better, dosoftware housecleaning, which is explained on pages 583-585.